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Credit unions and the common bond

Author

Listed:
  • William R. Emmons
  • Frank A. Schmid

Abstract

A distinguishing feature of credit unions is the legal requirement that members share a common bond. This organizing principle recently became the focus of national attention when the Supreme Court and the U.S. Congress took opposite sides in a controversy regarding the number of common bonds (fields of membership) that could coexist within a single credit union. In this article, Emmons and Schmid develop and simulate a model of credit-union formation and consolidation to examine the effects of common-bond restrictions on the performance of credit unions. The performance measures are participation rates among potential members and the operating costs of credit unions. Using a semiparametric econometric model and a large dataset drawn from federally chartered occupational credit unions in 1996, they find that, for a given number of potential members, credit unions with multiple-group charters have higher participation rates. They also find that, for a given number of members, operating costs of multiple-group credit unions are higher. Average operating costs at large credit unions, however, decrease as the number of members increases. Emmons and Schmid also find that local deposit-market concentration is related to participation rates and operating costs of credit unions.

Suggested Citation

  • William R. Emmons & Frank A. Schmid, 1999. "Credit unions and the common bond," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Sep, pages 41-64.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedlrv:y:1999:i:sep:p:41-64:n:v.81no.5
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Kane, Edward J. & Hendershott, Robert, 1996. "The federal deposit insurance fund that didn't put a bite on U.S. taxpayers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(8), pages 1305-1327, September.
    2. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
    3. William R. Emmons & Frank A. Schmid, 1999. "Wages and risk-taking in occupational credit unions: theory and evidence," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Mar, pages 13-32.
    4. Cleveland, William S. & Devlin, Susan J. & Grosse, Eric, 1988. "Regression by local fitting : Methods, properties, and computational algorithms," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 87-114, January.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. William R. Emmons & Frank A. Schmid, 2001. "Membership structure, competition, and occupational credit union deposit rates," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jan, pages 41-50.
    2. Silvio Goglio & Yiorgos Alexopoulos, 2009. "Financial Deregulation and Economic Distress: Is There a Future for Financial Co-operatives?," Euricse Working Papers 09001, Euricse (European Research Institute on Cooperative and Social Enterprises).
    3. Derek C. Jones & Panu Kalmi, 2012. "Economies of Scale Versus Participation: a Co-operative Dilemma?," Journal of Entrepreneurial and Organizational Diversity, European Research Institute on Cooperative and Social Enterprises, vol. 1(1), pages 37-64, December.
    4. Ebrahim, M. Shahid, 2009. "Can an Islamic model of housing finance cooperative elevate the economic status of the underprivileged?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 72(3), pages 864-883, December.
    5. R. Raymond Sant & Stephen B. Carter, 2015. "Acquired Credit Unions: Drivers of Takeover," International Journal of Business and Social Research, MIR Center for Socio-Economic Research, vol. 5(8), pages 18-33, August.
    6. Joanne G. Tokle & Robert J. Tokle, 2002. "Factors Determining Credit Union Loan Rates in Local Markets," New York Economic Review, New York State Economics Association (NYSEA), pages 52-60.
    7. Timothy H. Hannan, 2003. "The impact of credit unions on the rates offered for retail deposits by banks and thrift institutions," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2003-06, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    8. William R. Emmons & Frank A. Schmid, 2002. "Pricing and Dividend Policies in Open Credit Cooperatives," Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, pages 234-234.
    9. Gregory McKee & Albert Kagan, 2016. "Determinants of recent structural change for small asset U.S. credit unions," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 47(3), pages 775-795, October.
    10. Alexopoulos, Yiorgos & Goglio, Silvio, 2011. "Financial Cooperatives: Problems and Challenges in the Post-Crisis Era," Journal of Rural Cooperation, Hebrew University, Center for Agricultural Economic Research, vol. 39(1).
    11. Wheelock, David C. & Wilson, Paul W., 2013. "The evolution of cost-productivity and efficiency among US credit unions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 75-88.
    12. Tschöpel, Michael, 2012. "Die Wirkungskanäle der genossenschaftlichen Eigentümermerkmale: Implikationen für das mitgliederorientierte Management in Genossenschaftsbanken," Arbeitspapiere 127, University of Münster, Institute for Cooperatives.
    13. Malikov, Emir & Restrepo-Tobon, Diego A & Kumbhakar, Subal C., 2016. "Heterogeneous Credit Union Production Technologies with Endogenous Switching and Correlated Effects," MPRA Paper 71593, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. David C. Wheelock & Paul W. Wilson, 2009. "Robust, dynamic nonparametric benchmarking: the evolution of cost-productivity and efficiency among U.S. credit unions," Working Papers 2009-008, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    15. Joselito Gallardo & Michael Goldberg & Bikki Randhawa, 2006. "Strategic Alliances to Scale Up Financial Services in Rural Areas," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6960.
    16. Silvio Goglio & Yiorgos Alexopoulos, 2014. "Editorial: Cooperative Banks at a Turning Point?," Journal of Entrepreneurial and Organizational Diversity, European Research Institute on Cooperative and Social Enterprises, vol. 3(1), pages 1-8, June.
    17. Goddard, John A. & McKillop, Donal G. & Wilson, John O. S., 2002. "The growth of US credit unions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(12), pages 2327-2356.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Credit unions;

    JEL classification:

    • G2 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services
    • L3 - Industrial Organization - - Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise

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