IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/kap/rqfnac/v47y2016i3d10.1007_s11156-015-0520-6.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Determinants of recent structural change for small asset U.S. credit unions

Author

Listed:
  • Gregory McKee

    () (North Dakota State University)

  • Albert Kagan

    () (Concordia College)

Abstract

Abstract Credit union numbers in the United States have declined since 1969. Changes in financial performance of U.S. credit unions have contributed to this decline. This paper discusses how small asset credit unions income, deposits, and loans have evolved during the period 1994–2011, with particular emphasis on 2008–2011. The effect of asset growth on credit unions with below $10 million in assets is distinct when compared with average asset sized U.S. credit unions . These credit unions face structural barriers to increase assets and will require unique managerial responses to macroeconomic changes in order to continue to provide member focused financial services profitably.

Suggested Citation

  • Gregory McKee & Albert Kagan, 2016. "Determinants of recent structural change for small asset U.S. credit unions," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 47(3), pages 775-795, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:rqfnac:v:47:y:2016:i:3:d:10.1007_s11156-015-0520-6
    DOI: 10.1007/s11156-015-0520-6
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11156-015-0520-6
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Pejman Abedifar & Philip Molyneux & Amine Tarazi, 2014. "Non-Interest Income Activities and Bank Lending," Working Papers hal-00947074, HAL.
    2. Jason Allen & Robert Clark & Jean-François Houde, 2008. "Market Structure and the Diffusion of E-Commerce: Evidence from the Retail Banking Industry," Staff Working Papers 08-32, Bank of Canada.
    3. Al-Khasawneh, Jamal Ali & Essaddam, Naceur, 2012. "Market reaction to the merger announcements of US banks: A non-parametric X-efficiency framework," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 167-183.
    4. Berger, Allen N. & DeYoung, Robert, 2006. "Technological Progress and the Geographic Expansion of the Banking Industry," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(6), pages 1483-1513, September.
    5. Goddard, John & McKillop, Donal & Wilson, John O.S., 2008. "The diversification and financial performance of US credit unions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1836-1849, September.
    6. John Goddard & Donal McKillop & John Wilson, 2009. "Which Credit Unions are Acquired?," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 36(2), pages 231-252, December.
    7. Fried, Harold O. & Knox Lovell, C. A. & Eeckaut, Philippe Vanden, 1993. "Evaluating the performance of US credit unions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 251-265, April.
    8. Berger, Allen N. & Humphrey, David B., 1997. "Efficiency of financial institutions: International survey and directions for future research," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 175-212, April.
    9. Emir Malikov & Diego A. Restrepo-Tobón & Subal C. Kumbhakar, 2013. "Are all U.S. credit unions alike?," Documentos de Trabajo CIEF 010940, Universidad EAFIT.
    10. Wheelock, David C. & Wilson, Paul W., 2008. "Non-parametric, unconditional quantile estimation for efficiency analysis with an application to Federal Reserve check processing operations," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 145(1-2), pages 209-225, July.
    11. W. Scott Frame & Gordon V. Karels & Christine McClatchey, 2002. "The Effect of the Common Bond and Membership Expansion on Credit Union Risk," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 37(4), pages 613-636, November.
    12. Robert DeYoung, 2005. "The Performance of Internet-Based Business Models: Evidence from the Banking Industry," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 78(3), pages 893-948, May.
    13. Berger, Allen N. & Demsetz, Rebecca S. & Strahan, Philip E., 1999. "The consolidation of the financial services industry: Causes, consequences, and implications for the future," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 135-194, February.
    14. Allen N. Berger & Anil K. Kashyap & Joseph M. Scalise, 1995. "The Transformation of the U.S. Banking Industry: What a Long, Strange Trips It's Been," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 26(2), pages 55-218.
    15. DeYoung, Robert & Lang, William W. & Nolle, Daniel L., 2007. "How the Internet affects output and performance at community banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 1033-1060, April.
    16. Geoffrey Rubin & George Overstreet & Peter Beling & Kanshukan Rajaratnam, 2013. "A dynamic theory of the credit union," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 205(1), pages 29-53, May.
    17. Mamatzakis, E & Koutsomanoli-Filippaki, Anastasia & Pasiouras, Fotios, 2012. "A quantile regression approach to bank efficiency measurement," MPRA Paper 51879, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Paula Cabo & Joao Rebelo, 2005. "Why do Agricultural Credit Cooperatives Merge? The Portuguese Experience," Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 76(3), pages 491-516, September.
    19. DeYoung, Robert, 1997. "A diagnostic test for the distribution-free efficiency estimator: An example using U.S. commercial bank data," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 243-249, April.
    20. Jamal Al-Khasawneh, 2013. "Pairwise X-efficiency combinations of merging banks: analysis of the fifth merger wave," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 41(1), pages 1-28, July.
    21. J. Colin Glass & Donal McKillop, 2006. "The impact of differing operating environments on US Credit Union Performance, 1993-2001," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(17), pages 1285-1300.
    22. Schmidt, Peter & Sickles, Robin C, 1984. "Production Frontiers and Panel Data," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 2(4), pages 367-374, October.
    23. William R. Emmons & Frank A. Schmid, 1999. "Credit unions and the common bond," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, vol. 81(Sep), pages 41-64.
    24. Fung, Michael K., 2006. "Scale economies, X-efficiency, and convergence of productivity among bank holding companies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(10), pages 2857-2874, October.
    25. Smith, Donald J, 1984. "A Theoretic Framework for the Analysis of Credit Union Decision Making," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(4), pages 1155-1168, September.
    26. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    27. John Goddard & Donal McKillop & John Wilson, 2008. "What drives the performance of cooperative financial institutions? Evidence for US credit unions," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(11), pages 879-893.
    28. Damar Evren & Hunnicutt Lynn, 2010. "Credit Union Membership and Use of Internet Banking Technology," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 10(1), pages 1-32, May.
    29. Goddard, John A. & McKillop, Donal G. & Wilson, John O. S., 2002. "The growth of US credit unions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(12), pages 2327-2356.
    30. Malikov, Emir & Restrepo-Tobon, Diego A & Kumbhakar, Subal C., 2014. "Are All U.S. Credit Unions Alike? A Generalized Model of Heterogeneous Technologies with Endogenous Switching and Correlated Effects," MPRA Paper 55994, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    31. Gayle L. DeLong, 2003. "Does Long-Term Performance of Mergers Match Market Expectations? Evidence from the US Banking Industry," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 32(2), Summer.
    32. Garden, Kaylee A. & Ralston, Deborah E., 1999. "The x-efficiency and allocative efficiency effects of credit union mergers," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 285-301, August.
    33. Bauer, Keldon, 2008. "Detecting abnormal credit union performance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 573-586, April.
    34. John R. Walter, 2006. "Not your father's credit union," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, vol. 92(Fall), pages 353-377.
    35. Glass, J. Colin & McKillop, Donal G. & Rasaratnam, Syamarlah, 2010. "Irish credit unions: Investigating performance determinants and the opportunity cost of regulatory compliance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 67-76, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Credit union; Panel data; Financial performance; Small business; Cooperatives;

    JEL classification:

    • G2 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services
    • L1 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance
    • L3 - Industrial Organization - - Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:rqfnac:v:47:y:2016:i:3:d:10.1007_s11156-015-0520-6. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing). General contact details of provider: http://springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.