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Does Long-Term Performance of Mergers Match Market Expectations? Evidence from the US Banking Industry

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  • Gayle L. DeLong

Abstract

There is a paradox in bank mergers. On average, bank mergers do not create value, yet they continue to occur. Using cross-sectional analysis to examine 54 bank mergers announced between 1991 and 1995, I test several facets of focus and diversification. Upon announcement, the market rewards the mergers of partners that focus their geography and activities and earnings streams. Only one of these facets, focusing earnings streams, enhances long-term performance. Two other circumstances improve long-term performance: 1) when a merger involves a relatively inefficient acquirer and 2) when partners reduce bankruptcy costs.

Suggested Citation

  • Gayle L. DeLong, 2003. "Does Long-Term Performance of Mergers Match Market Expectations? Evidence from the US Banking Industry," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 32(2), Summer.
  • Handle: RePEc:fma:fmanag:delong03
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:spr:scient:v:102:y:2015:i:3:d:10.1007_s11192-014-1495-0 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Gleason, Kimberly & McNulty, James E. & Pennathur, Anita K., 2005. "Returns to acquirers of privatizing financial services firms: An international examination," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(8-9), pages 2043-2065, August.
    3. Valkanov, Emil & Kleimeier, Stefanie, 2007. "The role of regulatory capital in international bank mergers and acquisitions," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 50-68, January.
    4. Julapa Jagtiani, 2008. "Understanding the effects of the merger boom on community banks," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q II, pages 29-48.
    5. Navío-Marco, Julio & Serrano Calle, Silvia & Solórzano-García, Marta, 2017. "Analysis of glamorous acquisitions in the telecommunications sector: Overvaluation or success?," 28th European Regional ITS Conference, Passau 2017 169487, International Telecommunications Society (ITS).
    6. Meng-Chun Kao & Chien-Ting Lin & Lei Xu, 2012. "Do Financial Reforms Improve the Performance of Financial Holding Companies? The Case of T aiwan," International Review of Finance, International Review of Finance Ltd., vol. 12(4), pages 491-509, December.
    7. Reddy, Kotapati Srinivasa & Nangia, Vinay Kumar & Agrawal, Rajat, 2013. "Indian economic-policy reforms, bank mergers, and lawful proposals: The ex-ante and ex-post ‘lookup’," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 601-622.
    8. Raj Aggarwal & Aigbe Akhigbe & James McNulty, 2006. "Are Differences in Acquiring Bank Profit Efficiency Priced in Financial Markets?," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 30(3), pages 265-286, December.
    9. repec:ovi:oviste:v:xvii:y:2017:i:2:p:493-498 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Gayle DeLong & Robert DeYoung, 2004. "Learning by observing: information spillovers in the execution and valuation of commercial bank M&As," Working Paper Series WP-04-17, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    11. Gregory McKee & Albert Kagan, 2016. "Determinants of recent structural change for small asset U.S. credit unions," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 47(3), pages 775-795, October.
    12. Ahammad, Mohammad Faisal & Glaister, Keith W., 2013. "The pre-acquisition evaluation of target firms and cross border acquisition performance," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(5), pages 894-904.
    13. Robert DeYoung & Douglas Evanoff & Philip Molyneux, 2009. "Mergers and Acquisitions of Financial Institutions: A Review of the Post-2000 Literature," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 36(2), pages 87-110, December.
    14. Kristine Watson Hankins, 2011. "How Do Financial Firms Manage Risk? Unraveling the Interaction of Financial and Operational Hedging," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 57(12), pages 2197-2212, December.
    15. Gulamhussen, Mohamed Azzim & Hennart, Jean-François & Pinheiro, Carlos Manuel, 2016. "What drives cross-border M&As in commercial banking?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 72(S), pages 6-18.
    16. Dunn, Jessica Kay & Intintoli, Vincent J. & McNutt, Jamie John, 2015. "An examination of non-government-assisted US commercial bank mergers during the financial crisis," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 16-41.
    17. Claudia M. Buch & Gayle L. DeLong, 2008. "Banking Globalization: International Consolidation and Mergers in Banking," IAW Discussion Papers 38, Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW).

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