IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

The consolidation of the financial services industry: causes, consequences, and implications for the future

Listed author(s):
  • Allen N. Berger
  • Rebecca Demsetz
  • Philip E. Strahan

This article designs a framework for evaluating the causes, consequences, and future implications of financial consolidation, reviews the extant research literature within the context of this framework (over 250 references), and suggests fruitful avenues for future research. The evidence is consistent with increases in market power from some types of consolidation; improvements in profit efficiency and diversification of risks, but little or no cost efficiency improvements; relatively little effect on the availability of services to small customers; potential improvements in payments system efficiency; and potential costs on the financial system from increasing systemic risk or expanding the financial safety net.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/feds/1998/199846/199846abs.html
Download Restriction: no

File URL: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/feds/1998/199846/199846pap.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) in its series Finance and Economics Discussion Series with number 1998-46.

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: 1998
Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:1998-46
Contact details of provider: Postal:
20th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20551

Web page: http://www.federalreserve.gov/

More information through EDIRC

Order Information: Web: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/feds/fedsorder.html

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as
in new window

  1. Mitchell Berlin & Loretta J. Mester, 1997. "On the profitability and cost of relationship lending," Working Papers 97-3, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  2. Pilloff, Steven J, 1996. "Performance Changes and Shareholder Wealth Creation Associated with Mergers of Publicly Traded Banking Institutions," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(3), pages 294-310, August.
  3. Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1992. "Megamergers in banking and the use of cost efficiency as an antitrust defense," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 203, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  4. Frei, F.X. & Harker, P.T., 1996. "Measuring the Efficiency of Service Delivery Processes: With Application to Retail Banking," Papers 96-04, Rochester, Business - Operations Management.
  5. Bhattacharyya, Arunava & Lovell, C. A. K. & Sahay, Pankaj, 1997. "The impact of liberalization on the productive efficiency of Indian commercial banks," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 332-345, April.
  6. Gande, Amar, et al, 1997. "Bank Underwriting of Debt Securities: Modern Evidence," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(4), pages 1175-1202.
  7. Berger, Allen N. & Humphrey, David B., 1997. "Efficiency of financial institutions: International survey and directions for future research," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 175-212, April.
  8. Thakor, Anjan V., 1999. "Information technology and financial services consolidation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 697-700, February.
  9. Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1990. "The dominance of inefficiencies over scale and product mix economies in banking," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 107, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  10. Angelini, P. & Di Salvo, R. & Ferri, G., 1998. "Availability and cost of credit for small businesses: Customer relationships and credit cooperatives," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 925-954, August.
  11. Myron L. Kwast & Wayne Passmore, 1998. "The subsidy provided by the federal safety net: theory and measurement," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Sep.
  12. Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 1995. "The Effect of Credit Market Competition on Lending Relationships," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(2), pages 407-443.
  13. McAllister, Patrick H. & McManus, Douglas, 1993. "Resolving the scale efficiency puzzle in banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 389-405, April.
  14. Stavros Peristiani, 1996. "Do mergers improve the x-efficiency and scale efficiency of U.S. banks?: Evidence from the 1980s," Research Paper 9623, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  15. Hancock, Diana, 1986. "A model of the financial firm with imperfect asset and deposit elasticities," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 37-54, March.
  16. DeYoung, Robert & Hasan, Iftekhar, 1998. "The performance of de novo commercial banks: A profit efficiency approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(5), pages 565-587, May.
  17. Bauer, Paul W. & Hancock, Diana, 1993. "The efficiency of the Federal Reserve in providing check processing services," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 287-311, April.
  18. Saunders, Anthony, 1999. "Consolidation and universal banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 693-695, February.
  19. Kane, Edward J., 1999. "Implications of superhero metaphors for the issue of banking powers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 663-673, February.
  20. Frederic S. Mishkin, 1999. "Financial Consolidation: Dangers and Opportunities," NBER Working Papers 6655, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  21. Cole, Rebel A., 1998. "The importance of relationships to the availability of credit," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 959-977, August.
  22. Jalal D. Akhavein & Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1997. "The effects of megamergers on efficiency and prices: evidence from a bank profit function," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-9, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  23. Takeo Hoshi & Anil Kashyap & David Scharfstein, 1990. "The Role of Banks in Reducing the Costs of Financial Distress in Japan," NBER Working Papers 3435, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  24. Schranz, Mary S, 1993. "Takeovers Improve Firm Performance: Evidence from the Banking Industry," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(2), pages 299-326, April.
  25. Ferrier, Gary D. & Grosskopf, Shawna & Hayes, Kathy J. & Yaisawarng, Suthathip, 1993. "Economies of diversification in the banking industry : A frontier approach," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 229-249, April.
  26. João Cabral dos Santos, 1996. "Commercial banks in the securities business: a review," Working Paper 9610, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  27. Pulley, Lawrence B & Humphrey, David B, 1993. "The Role of Fixed Costs and Cost Complementarities in Determining Scope Economies and the Cost of Narrow Banking Proposals," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 66(3), pages 437-462, July.
  28. J. Cummins & Hongmin Zi, 1998. "Comparison of Frontier Efficiency Methods: An Application to the U.S. Life Insurance Industry," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 10(2), pages 131-152, October.
  29. Boyd, John H & Chang, Chun & Smith, Bruce D, 1998. "Moral Hazard under Commercial and Universal Banking," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 30(3), pages 426-468, August.
  30. Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-329, May.
  31. David B. Humphrey & Lawrence B. Pulley & Jukka M. Vesala, 1996. "Cash, paper, and electronic payments: a cross-country analysis," Proceedings, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), pages 914-941.
  32. Solomon, Elinor Harris, 1999. "What should regulators do about consolidation and electronic money?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 645-653, February.
  33. Cole, Rebel & Walraven, Nick, 1998. "Banking consolidation and the availability of credit to small businesses," MPRA Paper 4716, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  34. Calomiris, Charles W., 1999. "Gauging the efficiency of bank consolidation during a merger wave," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 615-621, February.
  35. Allen N. Berger & Loretta J. Mester, 1997. "Inside the black box: what explains differences in the efficiencies of financial institutions?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-10, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  36. Berger, Allen N. & Saunders, Anthony & Scalise, Joseph M. & Udell, Gregory F., 1998. "The effects of bank mergers and acquisitions on small business lending," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 187-229, November.
  37. DeYoung, Robert & Hasan, Iftekhar & Kirchhoff, Bruce, 1998. "The Impact of Out-of-State Entry on the Cost Efficiency of Local Commercial Banks," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 191-203, March.
  38. Randall S. Kroszner & Raghuram G. Rajan, "undated". "Organization Structure and Credibility: Evidence from Commercial Bank Securities Activities Before the Glass-Steagall Act," CRSP working papers 325, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
  39. Resti, Andrea, 1998. "Regulation Can Foster Mergers, Can Mergers Foster Efficiency? The Italian Case," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 157-169, March.
  40. William R. Keeton, 1995. "Multi-office bank lending to small businesses: some new evidence," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q II, pages 45-57.
  41. Joseph P. Hughes & Choon-Geol Moon, 1997. "Efficient Banking Under Interstate Branching," Departmental Working Papers 199609, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
  42. Rhoades, Stephen A., 1985. "Market share as a source of market power: Implications and some evidence," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 343-363, December.
  43. Berger, Philip G. & Ofek, Eli, 1995. "Diversification's effect on firm value," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 39-65, January.
  44. R. Glenn Hubbard & Darius Palia, 1994. "Executive Pay and Performance: Evidence from the U.S. Banking Industry," NBER Working Papers 4704, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  45. Kirstin E. Wells, 1996. "Are checks overused?," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Fall, pages 2-12.
  46. Larry A. Frieder & Peter Sherrill, 1997. "Customer value management: decision support and knowledge management as the missing links," Proceedings 535, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  47. Myron L. Kwast & Martha Starr-McCluer & John D. Wolken, 1997. "Market definition and the analysis of antitrust in banking," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-52, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  48. Noulas, Athanasios G & Ray, Subhash C & Miller, Stephen M, 1990. "Returns to Scale and Input Substitution for Large U.S. Banks," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 22(1), pages 94-108, February.
  49. J. David Cummins & Sharon Tennyson & Mary A. Weiss, 1998. "Consolidation and Efficiency in the U.S. Life Insurance Industry," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 98-08, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  50. Berger, Allen N. & Hancock, Diana & Humphrey, David B., 1993. "Bank efficiency derived from the profit function," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 317-347, April.
  51. Katerina Simons & Joanna Stavins, 1998. "Has antitrust policy in banking become obsolete?," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue Mar, pages 13-26.
  52. Keeton, William R., 1995. "Multi-Office Bank Lending To Small Businesses: Some New Evidence," Proceedings: 1995 Regional Committee NC-207, October 16-17, 1995, Kansas City, Missouri 131493, Regional Research Committee NC-1014: Agricultural and Rural Finance Markets in Transition.
  53. Allen Berger & John Leusner & John Mingo, 1994. "The Efficiency of Bank Branches," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 94-27, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  54. Kwast, Myron L., 1999. "Bank mergers: What should policymakers do?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 629-636, February.
  55. David Neumark & Steven A. Sharpe, 1992. "Market Structure and the Nature of Price Rigidity: Evidence from the Market for Consumer Deposits," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 657-680.
  56. Hunter, William C & Timme, Stephen G, 1986. "Technical Change, Organizational Form, and the Structure of Bank Production," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 18(2), pages 152-166, May.
  57. João Santos, 1998. "Commercial Banks in the Securities Business: A Review," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 14(1), pages 35-60, July.
  58. Susan McLaughlin, 1995. "The impact of interstate banking and branching reform: evidence from the states," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 1(May).
  59. Aruna Srinivasan & Larry D. Wall, 1992. "Cost savings associated with bank mergers," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 92-2, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  60. Steven Fazzari & R. Glenn Hubbard & Bruce C. Petersen, 1987. "Financing Constraints and Corporate Investment," NBER Working Papers 2387, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  61. Ferrier, Gary D. & Lovell, C. A. Knox, 1990. "Measuring cost efficiency in banking : Econometric and linear programming evidence," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1-2), pages 229-245.
  62. Allen, Linda & Saunders, Anthony & Udell, Gregory F., 1991. "The pricing of retail deposits: Concentration and information," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 1(4), pages 335-361, December.
  63. Rebel A. Cole & Lawrence G. Goldberg & Lawrence J. White, 1997. "Cookie-Cutter versus Character: The Micro Structure of Small Business Lending by Large and Small Banks," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 98-022, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
  64. Peter G. Klein & Marc R. Saidenberg, "undated". "Diversification, Organization, and Efficiency: Evidence from Bank Holding Companies," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 97-27, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  65. Bhargava, Rahul & Fraser, Donald R., 1998. "On the wealth and risk effects of commercial bank expansion into securities underwriting: An analysis of Section 20 subsidiaries1," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 447-465, May.
  66. Kashyap, Anil K, 1999. "What should regulators do about merger policy?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 623-627, February.
  67. Joaquín Maudos Villarroya, 1996. "Market structure and performance in Spanish banking using a direct measure of efficiency," Working Papers. Serie EC 1996-12, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
  68. Franklin Allen & Douglas Gale, 1996. "Financial Markets, Intermediaries and Intertemporal Smoothing," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 96-33, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  69. Fried, Harold O. & Lovell, C. A. Knox & Yaisawarng, Suthathip, 1999. "The impact of mergers on credit union service provision," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 367-386, February.
  70. Owen Lamont, 1996. "Cash Flow and Investment: Evidence from Internal Capital Markets," NBER Working Papers 5499, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  71. Shaffer, Sherrill, 1993. "Can megamergers improve bank efficiency?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 423-436, April.
  72. N. Berger, Allen & F. Udell, Gregory, 1998. "The economics of small business finance: The roles of private equity and debt markets in the financial growth cycle," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 613-673, August.
  73. Hannan, Timothy H., 1991. "Bank commercial loan markets and the role of market structure: evidence from surveys of commercial lending," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 133-149, February.
  74. Simon H. Kwan, 1998. "Securities activities by commercial banking firms' section 20 subsidiaries: risk, return, and diversification benefits," Proceedings 609, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  75. Boyd, John H. & Graham, Stanley L. & Hewitt, R. Shawn, 1993. "Bank holding company mergers with nonbank financial firms: Effects on the risk of failure," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 43-63, February.
  76. Loretta J. Mester, 1990. "Perpetual signaling with imperfectly correlated costs," Working Papers 90-13, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  77. Shaffer, Sherrill, 1989. "Competition in the U.S. banking industry," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 321-323.
  78. Jayaratne, Jith & Wolken, John, 1999. "How important are small banks to small business lending?: New evidence from a survey of small firms," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 427-458, February.
  79. Joseph P. Hughes & William Lang & Loretta J. Mester & Choon-Geol Moon, 1998. "The Dollars and Sense of Bank Consolidation," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 99-04, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  80. Mester, Loretta J., 1992. "Traditional and nontraditional banking: An information-theoretic approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 545-566, June.
  81. Harry G. Johnson, 1968. "Problems of Efficiency in Monetary Management," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 76, pages 971-971.
  82. William R. White, 1998. "The coming transformation of continental european banking?," BIS Working Papers 54, Bank for International Settlements.
  83. Raphael W. Bostic & Glenn B. Canner, 1998. "New information on lending to small businesses and small farms: the 1996 CRA data," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Jan, pages 1-21.
  84. Cybo-Ottone, Alberto & Murgia, Maurizio, 2000. "Mergers and shareholder wealth in European banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 831-859, June.
  85. Frances X. Frei & Patrick T. Harker & Larry W. Hunter, 1995. "Performance in Consumer Financial Services Organizations: Framework and Results from the Pilot Study," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 95-03, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  86. Williamson, Oliver E, 1988. " Corporate Finance and Corporate Governance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(3), pages 567-591, July.
  87. J. David Cummins & Mary A. Weiss, 1998. "Analyzing Firm Performance in the Insurance Industry Using Frontier Efficiency Methods," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 98-22, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  88. Houston, Joel F. & Ryngaert, Michael D., 1994. "The overall gains from large bank mergers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 1155-1176, December.
  89. Loretta J. Mester & Leonard I. Nakamura & Micheline Renault, 1998. "Checking accounts and bank monitoring," Working Papers 98-25, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  90. Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester, 1997. "Bank capitalization and cost: evidence of scale economies in risk management and signaling," Working Papers 96-2, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  91. Shepherd, William G, 1986. "Tobin's q and the Structure-Performance Relationship: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1205-1210, December.
  92. Allen N. Berger & Anil K. Kashyap & Joseph Scalise, 1995. "The Transformation of the U.S. Banking Industry: What a Long, Strange Trip It's Been," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 96-06, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  93. Joel F. Houston & Michael D. Ryngaert, 1996. "The Value Added By Bank Acquisitions: Lessons From Wells Fargo'S Acquisition Of First Interstate," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 9(2), pages 74-82.
  94. Jayaratne, Jith & Strahan, Philip E, 1998. "Entry Restrictions, Industry Evolution, and Dynamic Efficiency: Evidence from Commercial Banking," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 41(1), pages 239-273, April.
  95. Humphrey, David B & Pulley, Lawrence B & Vesala, Jukka M, 1996. "Cash, Paper, and Electronic Payments: A Cross-Country Analysis," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(4), pages 914-939, November.
  96. Jones, David & Mingo, John, 1999. "Credit risk modeling and internal capital allocation processes: implications for a models-based regulatory bank capital standard," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 79-108, March.
  97. Houston, Joel & James, Christopher & Marcus, David, 1997. "Capital market frictions and the role of internal capital markets in banking," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 135-164, November.
  98. Kwast, Myron L., 1989. "The impact of underwriting and dealing on bank returns and risks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 101-125, March.
  99. Loretta J. Mester, "undated". "Efficiency in the Savings and Loan Industry," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 26-92, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
  100. Larry H.P. Lang & Rene M. Stulz, 1993. "Tobin's Q, Corporate Diversification and Firm Performance," NBER Working Papers 4376, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  101. Houston, Joel F & Ryngaert, Michael D, 1997. " Equity Issuance and Adverse Selection: A Direct Test Using Conditional Stock Offers," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 197-219, March.
  102. DeYoung, Robert, 1998. "Comment on Goldberg and White," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 868-872, August.
  103. Blackwell, David W & Winters, Drew B, 1997. "Banking Relationships and the Effect of Monitoring on Loan Pricing," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 20(2), pages 275-289, Summer.
  104. Elsas, Ralf & Krahnen, Jan Pieter, 1998. "Is relationship lending special? Evidence from credit-file data in Germany," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(10-11), pages 1283-1316, October.
  105. Aruna Srinivasan, 1992. "Are there cost savings from bank mergers?," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Mar, pages 17-28.
  106. Paul H. Kupiec & James M. O'Brien, 1995. "A pre-commitment approach to capital requirements for market risk," Proceedings 475, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  107. Boot, Arnoud W. A., 1999. "European lessons on consolidation in banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 609-613, February.
  108. Andrew M. Yuengert, 1993. "The measurement of efficiency in life insurance estimates of a mixed normal-gamma error model," Research Paper 9308, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  109. Allen N. Berger & Diana Hancock & Jeffrey C. Marquardt, 1996. "A framework for analyzing efficiency, risks, costs and innovations in the payments system," Proceedings, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), pages 696-732.
  110. Nicholas Walraven, 1997. "Small business lending by banks involved in mergers," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-25, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  111. Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren, 1997. "Bank consolidation and small business lending: it's not just bank size that matters," Working Papers 97-1, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  112. Paul S. Calem, 1994. "The impact of geographic deregulation on small banks," Business Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, issue Nov, pages 17-31.
  113. Jean-Charles Rochet & Jean Tirole, 1996. "Interbank lending and systemic risk," Proceedings, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), pages 733-765.
  114. Takeo Hoshi & Anil Kashyap & David Scharfstein, 1991. "Corporate Structure, Liquidity, and Investment: Evidence from Japanese Industrial Groups," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(1), pages 33-60.
  115. Hannan, Timothy H. & Liang, J. Nellie, 1993. "Inferring market power from time-series data : The case of the banking firm," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 205-218, June.
  116. Saunders, Anthony & Walter, Ingo, 1994. "Universal Banking in the United States: What Could We Gain? What Could We Lose?," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195080698, December.
  117. C. Edward Chang & Iftekhar Hasan & William Hunter, 1998. "Efficiency of multinational banks: an empirical investigation," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(6), pages 689-696.
  118. Benston, George J & Hunter, William C & Wall, Larry D, 1995. "Motivations for Bank Mergers and Acquisitions: Enhancing the Deposit Insurance Put Option versus Earnings Diversification," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(3), pages 777-788, August.
  119. Jith Jayaratne & Philip E. Strahan, 1996. "The Finance-Growth Nexus: Evidence from Bank Branch Deregulation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 111(3), pages 639-670.
  120. Darryll Hendricks & Beverly Hirtle, 1997. "Bank capital requirements for market risk: the internal models approach," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Dec, pages 1-12.
  121. Jeffrey A. Clark & Thomas F. Siems, 1997. "Competitive viability in banking: looking beyond the balance sheet," Financial Industry Studies Working Paper 97-5, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
  122. Timothy H. Hannan & John D. Wolken, 1989. "Returns to bidders and targets in the acquisition process: evidence from the banking industry," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 64, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  123. Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren & Faith Kasirye, 1998. "The poor performance of foreign bank subsidiaries: were the problems acquired or created?," Working Papers 98-3, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  124. Gardner, Lisa A. & Grace, Martin F., 1993. "X-Efficiency in the US life insurance industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 497-510, April.
  125. Clark, Jeffrey A, 1996. "Economic Cost, Scale Efficiency, and Competitive Viability in Banking," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(3), pages 342-364, August.
  126. Berger, Allen N. & Humphrey, David B. & Pulley, Lawrence B., 1996. "Do consumers pay for one-stop banking? Evidence from an alternative revenue function," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(9), pages 1601-1621, November.
  127. Esty, Benjamin & Narasimhan, Bhanu & Tufano, Peter, 1999. "Interest-rate exposure and bank mergers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 255-285, February.
  128. Rhoades, Stephen A., 1998. "The efficiency effects of bank mergers: An overview of case studies of nine mergers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 273-291, March.
  129. Petersen, Mitchell A., 1999. "Comment on Jayaratne and Wolken," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 459-462, February.
  130. Smirlock, Michael, 1985. "Evidence on the (Non) Relationship between Concentration and Profitability in Banking," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 17(1), pages 69-83, February.
  131. Yuengert, Andrew M., 1993. "The measurement of efficiency in life insurance: Estimates of a mixed normal-gamma error model," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 483-496, April.
  132. Richard J. Rosen & Peter Lloyd-Davies & Myron L. Kwast & David B. Humphrey, 1988. "New banking powers: a portfolio analysis of bank investment in real estate," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 20, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  133. Stephen A. Rhoades, 1986. "The operating performance of acquired firms in banking before and after acquisition," Staff Studies 149, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  134. Goldberg, Lawrence G. & Hanweck, Gerald A. & Keenan, Michael & Young, Allan, 1991. "Economies of scale and scope in the securities industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 91-107, February.
  135. Kenneth A. Froot & Jeremy C. Stein, 1991. "Exchange Rates and Foreign Direct Investment: An Imperfect Capital Markets Approach," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(4), pages 1191-1217.
  136. Houston, Joel F. & James, Christopher, 1998. "Do bank internal capital markets promote lending?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 899-918, August.
  137. Milbourn, Todd T. & Boot, Arnoud W. A. & Thakor, Anjan V., 1999. "Megamergers and expanded scope: Theories of bank size and activity diversity," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 195-214, February.
  138. Strahan, Philip E. & Weston, James P., 1998. "Small business lending and the changing structure of the banking industry1," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 821-845, August.
  139. Philip E. Strahan & James Weston, 1996. "Small business lending and bank consolidation: is there cause for concern?," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 2(Mar).
  140. Allen N. Berger & Gerald A. Hanweck & David B. Humphrey, 1986. "Competitive viability in banking: scale, scope, and product mix economies," Research Papers in Banking and Financial Economics 82, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  141. Berger, Allen N & Udell, Gregory F, 1995. "Relationship Lending and Lines of Credit in Small Firm Finance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(3), pages 351-381, July.
  142. Demsetz, Rebecca S & Strahan, Philip E, 1997. "Diversification, Size, and Risk at Bank Holding Companies," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 29(3), pages 300-313, August.
  143. Randall S. Kroszner, 1998. "Rethinking Bank Regulation: A Review Of The Historical Evidence," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 11(2), pages 48-58.
  144. John H. Boyd & Mark Gertler, 1994. "Are banks dead?," The Region, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Sep, pages 22-26.
  145. Goldberg, Lawrence G. & White, Lawrence J., 1998. "De novo banks and lending to small businesses: An empirical analysis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 851-867, August.
  146. Alien, Linda & Cebenoyan, A. Sinan, 1991. "Bank acquisitions and ownership structure: Theory and evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 425-448, April.
  147. Hannan, Timothy H & Berger, Allen N, 1991. "The Rigidity of Prices: Evidence from the Banking Industry," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(4), pages 938-945, September.
  148. Hadlock, Charles & Houston, Joel & Ryngaert, Michael, 1999. "The role of managerial incentives in bank acquisitions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 221-249, February.
  149. Hunter, William C & Timme, Stephen G & Yang, Won Keun, 1990. "An Examination of Cost Subadditivity and Multiproduct Production in Large U.S. Banks," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 22(4), pages 504-525, November.
  150. John, Kose & Ofek, Eli, 1995. "Asset sales and increase in focus," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 105-126, January.
  151. Mester, Loretta J, 1987. "Multiple Market Contact between Savings and Loans: A Note," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 19(4), pages 538-549, November.
  152. Vennet, Rudi Vander, 1996. "The effect of mergers and acquisitions on the efficiency and profitability of EC credit institutions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(9), pages 1531-1558, November.
  153. William R. Keeton, 1996. "Do bank mergers reduce lending to businesses and farmers? New evidence from Tenth District states," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q III, pages 63-75.
  154. Cornett, Marcia Millon & Tehranian, Hassan, 1992. "Changes in corporate performance associated with bank acquisitions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 211-234, April.
  155. Rhoades, Stephen A., 1993. "Efficiency effects of horizontal (in-market) bank mergers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 411-422, April.
  156. Cosimano, Thomas F. & McDonald, Bill, 1998. "What's different among banks?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 57-70, February.
  157. Mahajan, Arvind & Rangan, Nanda & Zardkoohi, Asghar, 1996. "Cost structures in multinational and domestic banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 283-306, March.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:1998-46. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Franz Osorio)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.