IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login

Citations for "Expectations and the Stability Problem for Optimal Monetary Policies"

by George W. Evans & Seppo Honkapohja

For a complete description of this item, click here. For a RSS feed for citations of this item, click here.
as in new window

  1. Michael Woodford, 2013. "Macroeconomic Analysis without the Rational Expectations Hypothesis," NBER Working Papers 19368, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. George W. Evans & Roger Guesnerie & Bruce McGough, 2010. "Eductive Stability in Real Business Cycle Models," University of Oregon Economics Department Working Papers 2010-16, University of Oregon Economics Department.
  3. Mewael Tesfaselassie, 2011. "Trend Growth and Learning About Monetary Policy Rules," Kiel Working Papers 1744, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  4. Evans, George W. & Honkapohja, Seppo, 2003. "Adaptive Learning and Monetary Policy Design," CEPR Discussion Papers 3962, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  5. Yu-chin Chen & Pisut Kulthanavit, 2008. "Adaptive Learning and Monetary Policy: Lessons from Japan," Working Papers UWEC-2008-12-P, University of Washington, Department of Economics, revised Oct 2008.
  6. Athanasios Orphanides & John C. Williams, 2003. "Inflation scares and forecast-based monetary policy," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2003-21, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  7. Ali Al-Eyd, 2006. "Financial Crisis, Effective Policy Rules and Bounded Rationality in a New Keynesian Framework," NIESR Discussion Papers 272, National Institute of Economic and Social Research.
  8. Krisztina Molnár & Sergio Santoro, 2010. "Optimal Monetary Policy when Agents are Learning," CESifo Working Paper Series 3072, CESifo Group Munich.
  9. George W. Evans & Seppo Honkapohja, 2007. "Robust Learning Stability with Operational Monetary Policy Rules," CDMA Working Paper Series 200719, Centre for Dynamic Macroeconomic Analysis, revised 15 Jan 2008.
  10. Andrew P. Blake & Tatiana Kirsanova, 2012. "Discretionary Policy and Multiple Equilibria in LQ RE Models," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 79(4), pages 1309-1339.
  11. Gasteiger, Emanuel, 2014. "Heterogeneous Expectations, Optimal Monetary Policy, and the Merit of Policy Inertia," Annual Conference 2014 (Hamburg): Evidence-based Economic Policy 100555, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
  12. Mikael Bask & Carina Selander, 2009. "Robust Taylor rules under heterogeneity in currency trade," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 6(3), pages 283-313, October.
  13. Xiao, Wei, 2013. "Learning about monetary policy rules when the housing market matters," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 500-515.
  14. Martin Fukac, 2008. "Heterogeneous Expectations, Adaptive Learning,and Forward-Looking Monetary Policy," Reserve Bank of New Zealand Discussion Paper Series DP2008/07, Reserve Bank of New Zealand.
  15. Michael Spagat & Joao Mauricio Rosal, 2004. "Structural uncertainty and central bank conservatism: the ignorant should keep their eyes shut," Money Macro and Finance (MMF) Research Group Conference 2003 93, Money Macro and Finance Research Group.
  16. Francesco Bianchi & Leonardo Melosi, 2012. "Constrained Discretion and Central Bank Transparency," PIER Working Paper Archive 13-031, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
  17. George W. Evans & Seppo Honkapohja, 2008. "Expectations, Learning, And Monetary Policy: An Overview Of Recent Research," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 501, Central Bank of Chile.
  18. Klaus Masuch & Sergio Nicoletti-Altimari & Massimo Rostagno & Huw Pill, 2003. "The role of money in monetary policymaking," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Monetary policy in a changing environment, volume 19, pages 158-191 Bank for International Settlements.
  19. Xiao, Wei & Xu, Junyi, 2014. "Expectations and optimal monetary policy: A stability problem revisited," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 124(2), pages 296-299.
  20. Llosa Gonzalo & Tuesta Vicente, 2007. "Learning about Monetary Policy Rules when the Cost Channel Matters," Working Papers 2007-014, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú.
  21. Berardi, Michele, 2008. "Should monetary policy respond to private sector expectations?," MPRA Paper 19285, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  22. Chernov, Mikhail & Mueller, Philippe, 2012. "The term structure of inflation expectations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(2), pages 367-394.
  23. Philip Arestis & Alexander Mihailov, 2008. "Classifying Monetary Economics: Fields and Methods from Past to Future," Economics & Management Discussion Papers em-dp2008-64, Henley Business School, Reading University.
  24. Jasmina Arifovic & James B. Bullard & Olena Kostyshyna, 2007. "Social learning and monetary policy rules," Working Papers 2007-007, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  25. Alberto Locarno, 2007. "Imperfect Knowledge, Adaptive Learning, and the Bias Against Activist Monetary Policies," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 3(3), pages 47-85, September.
  26. Sophocles N. Brissimis & Nicholas S. Magginas, 2006. "Monetary Policy Rules under Heterogeneous Inflation Expectations," Working Papers 35, Bank of Greece.
  27. Sagarika Mishra, . "Do Agents Learn by Least Squares? The Evidence Provided by Changes in Monetary Policy," Financial Econometics Series 2012_09, Deakin University, Faculty of Business and Law, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance.
  28. James B. Bullard & Stefano Eusepi, 2004. "Did the Great Inflation occur despite policymaker commitment to a Taylor rule?," Working Papers 2003-013, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  29. Stefano Eusepi & Bruce Preston, 2008. "Expectations, Learning And Business Cycle Fluctuations," CAMA Working Papers 2008-20, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
  30. Nicolò Pecora & Alessandro Spelta, 2013. "Macroeconomic Stability and Heterogeneous Expectations," DEM Working Papers Series 037, University of Pavia, Department of Economics and Management.
  31. Evans, George W. & Honkapohja, Seppo, 2002. "Monetary Policy, Expectations and Commitment," CEPR Discussion Papers 3434, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  32. Stefano Eusepi, 2004. "Does Central Bank Transparency Matter for Economic Stability," Computing in Economics and Finance 2004 176, Society for Computational Economics.
  33. Berardi, Michele, 2015. "Time-varying policy rule under learning," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 129(C), pages 25-28.
  34. Jensen, Christian, 2014. "Discretionary policy exploiting learning in a sticky-information model of the inflation-output trade-off: Bridging the gap to commitment," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 150-158.
  35. Fabrizio Mattesini & Lorenza Rossi, 2010. "Monetary Policy and Automatic Stabilizers: the Role of Progressive Taxation," Quaderni di Dipartimento 134, University of Pavia, Department of Economics and Quantitative Methods.
  36. Bullard, James & Schaling, Eric, 2006. "Monetary policy, determinacy, and learnability in the open economy," Working Paper Series 0611, European Central Bank.
  37. Stefano Eusepi & James Bullard, 2008. "When Does Determinacy Imply Expectational Stability?," 2008 Meeting Papers 897, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  38. George W. Evans & Bruce McGough, 2003. "Monetary Policy, Indeterminacy and Learning," University of Oregon Economics Department Working Papers 2003-34, University of Oregon Economics Department, revised 01 Apr 2004.
  39. Cone, Thomas E., 2005. "Learnability and transparency with time inconsistent monetary policy," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 187-191, May.
  40. Stefano Eusepi & Bruce Preston, 2008. "Stabilizing Expectations under Monetary and Fiscal Policy Coordination," NBER Working Papers 14391, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  41. Honkapohja, S. & Mitra, K., 2001. "Are Non-Fundamental Equilibria Learnable in Models of Monetary Policy?," University of Helsinki, Department of Economics 501, Department of Economics.
  42. James B. Bullard & Kaushik Mitra, 2002. "Learning about monetary policy rules," Working Papers 2000-001, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  43. Mitra, Kaushik, 2003. " Desirability of Nominal GDP Targeting under Adaptive Learning," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 35(2), pages 197-220, April.
  44. George W. Evans & William A.Branch, 2010. "Monetary Policy and Heterogeneous Expectations," University of Oregon Economics Department Working Papers 2010-4, University of Oregon Economics Department.
  45. Chakraborty, Avik & Evans, George W., 2008. "Can perpetual learning explain the forward-premium puzzle?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 477-490, April.
  46. Michael Woodford, 2005. "Robustly Optimal Monetary Policy with Near Rational Expectations," NBER Working Papers 11896, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  47. Eusepi, Stefano & Preston, Bruce, 2011. "Learning the fiscal theory of the price level: Some consequences of debt-management policy," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 358-379.
  48. Giusto, Andrea, 2014. "Adaptive learning and distributional dynamics in an incomplete markets model," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 317-333.
  49. Bullard, J. & Evans, G.W. & Honkapohja ,S., 2005. "Near-Rational Exuberance," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0546, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  50. Machado, Vicente da Gama, 2013. "Monetary policy rules, asset prices and adaptive learning," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 251-258.
  51. Davide Debortoli & Junior Maih & Ricardo Nunes, 2010. "Loose commitment in medium-scale macroeconomic models: Theory and an application," Working Paper 2010/25, Norges Bank.
  52. Alain Kabundi, Eric Schaling and Modeste Some, 2014. "Monetary Policy and Heterogeneous Inflation Expectations in South Africa," Working Papers 422, Economic Research Southern Africa.
  53. Anufriev, M. & Assenza, T. & Hommes, C.H. & Massaro, D., 2008. "Interest Rate Rules with Heterogeneous Expectations," CeNDEF Working Papers 08-08, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Center for Nonlinear Dynamics in Economics and Finance.
  54. Carlos Huertas Campos & Eliana González Molano & Cristhian Ruiz Cardozo, 2015. "La formación de expectativas de inflación en Colombia," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 012699, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  55. Cars Hommes & Mei Zhu, 2013. "Behavioral Learning Equilibria," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-014/II, Tinbergen Institute.
  56. John Duffy & Wei Xiao, 2007. "The Value of Interest Rate Stabilization Policies When Agents Are Learning," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 39(8), pages 2041-2056, December.
  57. Kaushik Mitra & Seppo Honkapohja, 2004. "Learning Stability in Economies with Heterogenous Agents," Royal Holloway, University of London: Discussion Papers in Economics 04/17, Department of Economics, Royal Holloway University of London, revised Jul 2004.
  58. Seonghoon Cho & Antonio Moreno, 2008. "Expectational Stability in Multivariate Models," Faculty Working Papers 06/08, School of Economics and Business Administration, University of Navarra.
  59. Bennett T. McCallum, 2006. "E-Stability vis-a-vis Determinacy Results for a Broad Class of Linear Rational Expectations Models," NBER Working Papers 12441, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  60. Evans, George W. & Honkapohja, Seppo, 2011. "Learning as a Rational Foundation for Macroeconomics and Finance," CEPR Discussion Papers 8340, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  61. Pei Kuang & Kaushik Mitra, 2015. "Long Run Growth Uncertainty," Discussion Papers 15-13, Department of Economics, University of Birmingham.
  62. repec:hal:wpaper:halshs-00590564 is not listed on IDEAS
  63. Anssi Rantala, 2004. "Adaptive learning and multiple equilibria in a natural rate monetary model with unemployment persistence," GE, Growth, Math methods 0404005, EconWPA.
  64. Cogley, Timothy & Matthes, Christian & Sbordone, Argia M., 2014. "Optimized Taylor Rules for Disinflation When Agents are Learning," Working Paper 14-7, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.
  65. Klaus Adam & Albert Marcet, 2011. "Internal Rationality, Imperfect Market Knowledge and Asset Prices," CEP Discussion Papers dp1068, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  66. Seppo Honkapohja & Kaushik Mitra, 2004. " Performance of Inflation Targeting Based on Constant Interest Rate Projections," CDMA Conference Paper Series 0406, Centre for Dynamic Macroeconomic Analysis.
  67. Evans, G.W. & Honkapohja ,S. & Williams, N., 2005. "Generalized Stochastic Gradient Learning," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0545, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  68. Massaro, D., 2012. "Regime shifts: early warnings," CeNDEF Working Papers 12-02, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Center for Nonlinear Dynamics in Economics and Finance.
  69. Sergio Santoro, 2011. "Heterogeneity and learning with complete markets," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 806, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  70. Bask, Mikael, 2007. "Optimal monetary policy in a hybrid New Keynesian model with a cost channel," Research Discussion Papers 24/2007, Bank of Finland.
  71. Loisel, O., 2006. "Bubble-free interest-rate rules," Working papers 161, Banque de France.
  72. Eric Schaling & Mewael F. Tesfaselassie, 2013. "Trend Growth and Learning About Monetary Policy Rules in a Two-Block World Economy," Kiel Working Papers 1818, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  73. Tetlow, Robert J. & von zur Muehlen, Peter, 2009. "Robustifying learnability," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 296-316, February.
  74. Ferrero, Giuseppe, 2007. "Monetary policy, learning and the speed of convergence," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 31(9), pages 3006-3041, September.
  75. Mikael Bask, 2009. "Optimal monetary policy under heterogeneity in currency trade," Journal of Financial Economic Policy, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 1(4), pages 338-354, May.
  76. Kurz, Mordecai & Piccillo, Giulia & Wu, Howei, 2013. "Modeling diverse expectations in an aggregated New Keynesian Model," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 1403-1433.
  77. Kurozumi, Takushi, 2005. "Determinacy, learnability, and discretionary policy," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 181-185, May.
  78. Murray, James, 2011. "Learning and judgment shocks in U.S. business cycles," MPRA Paper 29257, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  79. Richard Dennis & Federico Ravenna, 2007. "Learning and optimal monetary policy," Working Paper Series 2007-19, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  80. Rantala, Anssi, 2003. "Adaptive learning and multiple equilibria in a natural rate monetary model with unemployment persistence," Research Discussion Papers 30/2003, Bank of Finland.
  81. Frey, Rainer, 2009. "The design of an asymmetric currency union with shock persistence and spillovers: Short-term versus medium-term," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 85-97, March.
  82. Michele Berardi, 2015. "Expectations formation under adaptive learning and evolutionary dynamics," Centre for Growth and Business Cycle Research Discussion Paper Series 206, Economics, The Univeristy of Manchester.
  83. Caprioli, Francesco, 2015. "Optimal fiscal policy under learning," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 101-124.
  84. Tiziana Assenzay & Michele Berardi, 2008. "Learning in a Credit Economy," Centre for Growth and Business Cycle Research Discussion Paper Series 100, Economics, The Univeristy of Manchester.
  85. James B. Bullard & Eric Schaling, 2006. "Monetary policy, determinacy, and learnability in a two-block world economy," Working Papers 2006-038, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  86. Berardi, Michele & Duffy, John, 2007. "The value of central bank transparency when agents are learning," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 9-29, March.
  87. Chadha, J.S. & Corrado, L., 2007. "On the Determinacy of Monetary Policy under Expectational Errors," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0722, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  88. Kaushik Mitra & James Bullard, 2004. "Determinacy, Learnability, and Monetary Policy Inertia," Royal Holloway, University of London: Discussion Papers in Economics 04/14, Department of Economics, Royal Holloway University of London, revised Jul 2004.
  89. Fanelli, Luca, 2007. "Evaluating the New Keynesian Phillips Curve under VAR-based learning," MPRA Paper 1616, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  90. Davide Debortoli & Junior Maih & Ricardo Nunes, 2011. "Loose commitment in medium-scale macroeconomic models: theory and applications," International Finance Discussion Papers 1034, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  91. Chowdhury, Ibrahim & Schabert, Andreas, 2008. "Federal reserve policy viewed through a money supply lens," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(4), pages 825-834, May.
  92. Federico di Pace & Kaushik Mitra & Shoujian Zhang, 2014. "Adaptive Learning and Labour Market Dynamics," CDMA Working Paper Series 201408, Centre for Dynamic Macroeconomic Analysis.
  93. Christian Matthes & Argia M. Sbordone & Timothy Cogley, 2011. "Optimal Disinflation Under Learning," 2011 Meeting Papers 74, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  94. Waters , George A., 2012. "Careful price level targeting," Research Discussion Papers 30/2012, Bank of Finland.
  95. Olivier Loisel, 2004. "Monetary policy rules to preclude booms and busts," Money Macro and Finance (MMF) Research Group Conference 2003 56, Money Macro and Finance Research Group.
  96. Stefano Eusepi, 2005. "Central bank transparency under model uncertainty," Staff Reports 199, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  97. Molnár, Krisztina & Santoro, Sergio, 2014. "Optimal monetary policy when agents are learning," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 39-62.
  98. Airaudo, Marco, 2013. "Monetary policy and stock price dynamics with limited asset market participation," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 1-22.
  99. Kaushik Mitra & Seppo Honkapohja, 2004. "Performance of Monetary Policy with Internal Central Bank Forecasting," Royal Holloway, University of London: Discussion Papers in Economics 04/18, Department of Economics, Royal Holloway University of London, revised Jul 2004.
  100. repec:ctc:serie1:def7 is not listed on IDEAS
  101. Ashima Goyal & Shruti Tripathi, 2015. "Stability and transitions in emerging market policy rules," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2015-003, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
  102. Giuseppe Ferrero, 2004. "Monetary Policy and the Transition to Rational Expectations," Econometric Society 2004 North American Summer Meetings 101, Econometric Society.
  103. Massaro, Domenico, 2013. "Heterogeneous expectations in monetary DSGE models," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 680-692.
  104. Preston, Bruce, 2006. "Adaptive learning, forecast-based instrument rules and monetary policy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 507-535, April.
  105. Ikeda, Taro, 2014. "Asymmetric preferences in real-time learning and the Taylor rule," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 124(3), pages 487-489.
  106. Di Bartolomeo Giovanni & Hughes Hallett Andrew & Acocella Nicola, 2008. "Policy games, policy neutrality and Tinbergen controllability under rational expectations," wp.comunite 0034, Department of Communication, University of Teramo.
  107. Federico Ravenna, 2014. "How Central Banks Learn the True Model of the Economy," Cahiers de recherche 1409, CIRPEE.
  108. Paul Hubert, 2009. "An Empirical Review of Federal Reserve’s Informational Advantage," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2009-03, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
  109. Marco Airaudo & Luis-Felipe Zanna, 2012. "Equilibrium Determinacy and Inflation Measures for Interest Rate Rules," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 15(4), pages 573-592, October.
  110. Tomáš Holinka, 2010. "Learning Process and Transparency of Central Bank," Politická ekonomie, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2010(4), pages 458-470.
  111. Mishra, Sagarika & Dhole, Sandip, 2014. "Least squares learning and the US Treasury bill rate," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 194-204.
  112. Timothy Kam, 2004. "Two-sided Learning and Optimal Monetary Policy in an Open Economy Model," Economics Discussion / Working Papers 04-07, The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics.
  113. Orlando Gomes, 2004. "Optimal Monetary Policy under Heterogeneous Expectations," Macroeconomics 0409023, EconWPA.
  114. Assenza, T. & Brock, W.A. & Hommes, C.H., 2012. "Animal Spirits, Heterogeneous Expectations and the Amplification and Duration of Crises," CeNDEF Working Papers 12-07, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Center for Nonlinear Dynamics in Economics and Finance.
  115. Ravenna, Federico, 2012. "Optimal monetary policy and model selection in a real-time learning environment," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 114(3), pages 322-325.
  116. Ichiro Muto, 2008. "Monetary Policy and Learning from the Central Bank's Forecast," IMES Discussion Paper Series 08-E-01, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan.
  117. Ichiro Muto, 2007. "Productivity Growth, Transparency, and Monetary Policy," IMES Discussion Paper Series 07-E-08, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan.
  118. Martin ZUMPE (GREThA UMR CNRS 5113), 2010. "Monetary Policy Rules, Learning and Stability: a Survey of the Recent Literature (In French)," Cahiers du GREThA 2010-01, Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée.
  119. Maurizio Bovi, 2014. "Shocks and the Expectations Formation Process. A Tale of Two Expectations," Natural Field Experiments 00390, The Field Experiments Website.
  120. Carlos Huertas Campos & Eliana González Molano & Cristhian Ruiz Cardozo, 2015. "La formación de expectativas de inflación en Colombia," Borradores de Economia 880, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  121. Gerberding, Christina, 2001. "The information content of survey data on expected price developments for monetary policy," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2001,09, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  122. Bask, Mikael & Proaño, Christian R, 2012. "Optimal Monetary Policy under Learning in a New Keynesian Model with Cost Channel and Inflation Inertia," Working Paper Series 2012:7, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
  123. Mordecai Kurz, 2011. "Symposium: on the role of market belief in economic dynamics, an introduction," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 47(2), pages 189-204, June.
  124. repec:thk:rnotes:10 is not listed on IDEAS
This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.