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Animal Spirits, Heterogeneous Expectations and the Amplification and Duration of Crises

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  • Assenza, T.

    () (Universiteit van Amsterdam)

  • Brock, W.A.
  • Hommes, C.H.

    () (University of Amsterdam)

Abstract

We introduce a simple equilibrium model of a market for loans. Households lend to firms and form expectations about their loan default probability. Under heterogeneous expectations, with switching between forecasting strategies driven by reinforcement learning, even a small fraction of pessimistic traders has a large aggregate effect, causing a heterogeneous expectations risk premium, i.e. significantly higher contract rates for loans and significantly lower output. Our stylized model illustrates how animal spirits and heterogeneous expectations may lead to a confidence loss and to financial instability amplifying the magnitude of economic crises and slowing down recovery.

Suggested Citation

  • Assenza, T. & Brock, W.A. & Hommes, C.H., 2012. "Animal Spirits, Heterogeneous Expectations and the Amplification and Duration of Crises," CeNDEF Working Papers 12-07, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Center for Nonlinear Dynamics in Economics and Finance.
  • Handle: RePEc:ams:ndfwpp:12-07
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    1. Peter Flaschel & Florian Hartmann & Christopher Malikane & Christian Proaño, 2015. "A Behavioral Macroeconomic Model of Exchange Rate Fluctuations with Complex Market Expectations Formation," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 45(4), pages 669-691, April.
    2. Stephen Cole & Fabio Milani, 2014. "The Misspecification of Expectations in New Keynesian Models: A DSGE-VAR Approach," Working Papers 131407, University of California-Irvine, Department of Economics.

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