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Expectations, learning and monetary policy: an overview of recent research

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  • Evans, George W.
  • Honkapohja, Seppo

Abstract

Expectations about the future are central for determination of current macroeconomic outcomes and the formulation of monetary policy. Recent literature has explored ways for supplementing the benchmark of rational expectations with explicit models of expectations formation that rely on econometric learning. Some apparently natural policy rules turn out to imply expectational instability of private agents' learning. We use the standard New Keynesian model to illustrate this problem and survey the key results for interest-rate rules that deliver both uniqueness and stability of equilibrium under econometric learning. We then consider some practical concerns such as measurement errors in private expectations, observability of variables and learning of structural parameters required for policy. We also discuss some recent applications, including policy design under perpetual learning, estimated models with learning, recurrent hyperinflation, and macroeconomic policy to combat liquidity traps and deflation.

Suggested Citation

  • Evans, George W. & Honkapohja, Seppo, 2007. "Expectations, learning and monetary policy: an overview of recent research," Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 32/2007, Bank of Finland.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:bofrdp:rdp2007_032
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    imperfect knowledge; learning; interest-rate setting; fluctuations; stability; determinacy;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • E31 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation
    • D84 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Expectations; Speculations

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