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The Rate of Obsolescence of Patents, Research Gestation Lags, and the Private Rate of Return to Research Resources

In: R&D, Patents, and Productivity

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Cited by:

  1. Harhoff, Dietmar & Hoisl, Karin & van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno, 2009. "Languages, Fees and the International Scope of Patenting," Discussion Papers in Business Administration 10456, University of Munich, Munich School of Management.
  2. Symeonidis, George, 2001. "Price Competition, Innovation and Profitability: Theory and UK Evidence," CEPR Discussion Papers 2816, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Mohamed MABROUKI, 2018. "What Kind Of Intellectual Propfrty Regime Is More Favorable To Innovation: With Or Without A Patent?," Journal of Smart Economic Growth, , vol. 3(1), pages 77-95, Juin.
  4. Jakob B. Madsen, 2008. "Economic Growth, TFP Convergence and the World Export of Ideas: A Century of Evidence," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 110(1), pages 145-167, March.
  5. Yang, Zhenbing & Shao, Shuai & Li, Chengyu & Yang, Lili, 2020. "Alleviating the misallocation of R&D inputs in China's manufacturing sector: From the perspectives of factor-biased technological innovation and substitution elasticity," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 151(C).
  6. Jones, Charles I & Williams, John C, 2000. "Too Much of a Good Thing? The Economics of Investment in R&D," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 65-85, March.
  7. Puay Tang & Dagmara Weckowska & André Campos & Michael Hobday, 2010. "Managing Intellectual Property in Universities: Patents and the Protection Failure Problem," SPRU Working Paper Series 188, SPRU - Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex Business School.
  8. Gupeng, Zhang & Xiangdong, Chen, 2012. "The value of invention patents in China: Country origin and technology field differences," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 357-370.
  9. Juyong Lee & Youngsang Cho & Jungwoo Shin, 2019. "A Study on the Optimal Ratio of Research and Development Investment in the Energy Sector: An Empirical Analysis in South Korea," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(2), pages 1-12, January.
  10. Lokshin, Boris & Hagedoorn, John & Letterie, Wilko, 2011. "The bumpy road of technology partnerships: Understanding causes and consequences of partnership mal-functioning," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 297-308, March.
  11. Roberto ESPOSTI & Pierpaolo PIERANI, 2001. "Building the Knowledge Stock: Lags, Depreciation and Uncertainty in Agricultural R&D," Working Papers 145, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
  12. Giuri, Paola & Mariani, Myriam & Brusoni, Stefano & Crespi, Gustavo & Francoz, Dominique & Gambardella, Alfonso & Garcia-Fontes, Walter & Geuna, Aldo & Gonzales, Raul & Harhoff, Dietmar & Hoisl, Karin, 2007. "Inventors and invention processes in Europe: Results from the PatVal-EU survey," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 1107-1127, October.
  13. Andrea Bastianin & Paolo Castelnovo & Massimo Florio & Anna Giunta, 2019. "Technological Learning and Innovation Gestation Lags at the Frontier of Science: from CERN Procurement to Patent," Papers 1905.09552, arXiv.org.
  14. Ugur, Mehmet & Trushin, Eshref & Solomon, Edna & Guidi, Francesco, 2016. "R&D and productivity in OECD firms and industries: A hierarchical meta-regression analysis," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(10), pages 2069-2086.
  15. Jaffe, Adam B, 1986. "Technological Opportunity and Spillovers of R&D: Evidence from Firms' Patents, Profits, and Market Value," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 984-1001, December.
  16. Wendy C. Y. Li & Bronwyn H. Hall, 2020. "Depreciation of Business R&D Capital," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 66(1), pages 161-180, March.
  17. Doraszelski, Ulrich & Jaumandreu, Jordi, 2006. "R&D and productivity: Estimating production functions when productivity is endogenous," MPRA Paper 1246, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  18. Kafouros, Mario I., 2008. "Economic returns to industrial research," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 61(8), pages 868-876, August.
  19. Bronwyn Hall, 1992. "R&D Tax Policy During the Eighties: Success or Failure?," NBER Working Papers 4240, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Laitner, John & Stolyarov, Dmitriy, 2004. "Aggregate returns to scale and embodied technical change: theory and measurement using stock market data," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 191-233, January.
  21. Boyan Jovanovic & Yaw Nyarko, 1995. "Research and Productivity," NBER Working Papers 5321, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  22. Pierre Koning & Karen Wiel, 2012. "School Responsiveness to Quality Rankings: An Empirical Analysis of Secondary Education in the Netherlands," De Economist, Springer, vol. 160(4), pages 339-355, December.
  23. Ornaghi, Carmine, 2006. "Spillovers in product and process innovation: Evidence from manufacturing firms," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 349-380, March.
  24. Boris Lokshin & Pierre Mohnen, 2012. "How effective are level-based R&D tax credits? Evidence from the Netherlands," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(12), pages 1527-1538, April.
  25. Ugur, Mehmet & Guidi, Francesco & Solomon, Edna & Trushin, Eshref, 2014. "R&D investment, productivity and rates of return: A meta-analysis of the evidence on OECD firms and industries," MPRA Paper 59686, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 22 Oct 2014.
  26. Arthur Charpentier & Romuald Elie & Carl Remlinger, 2020. "Reinforcement Learning in Economics and Finance," Papers 2003.10014, arXiv.org.
  27. Blazsek, Szabolcs & Escribano, Alvaro, 2010. "Knowledge spillovers in US patents: A dynamic patent intensity model with secret common innovation factors," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 159(1), pages 14-32, November.
  28. Viral V. Acharya & Krishnamurthy V. Subramanian, 2009. "Bankruptcy Codes and Innovation," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(12), pages 4949-4988, December.
  29. Zvi Griliches, 1998. "Patent Statistics as Economic Indicators: A Survey," NBER Chapters, in: R&D and Productivity: The Econometric Evidence, pages 287-343, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  30. Hao Mao & Lauren A. Johnston & Zhifeng Yin, 2019. "The Self-Reported Patent Quality Of Chinese Firms: Motivation Source And Technology Accumulation Effects Analysis," The Singapore Economic Review (SER), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 64(04), pages 939-960, September.
  31. Garner, Jacqueline L. & Nam, Jouahn & Ottoo, Richard E., 2002. "Determinants of corporate growth opportunities of emerging firms," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 73-93.
  32. Andre Steenkamp & Mark Schaffer & Wayde Flowerday & John Goddard, 2018. "Innovation activity in South Africa: Measuring the returns to R&D," WIDER Working Paper Series 42, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  33. Bessen, James, 2008. "The value of U.S. patents by owner and patent characteristics," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 932-945, June.
  34. Keller, Wolfgang, 2002. "Trade and the Transmission of Technology," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 7(1), pages 5-24, March.
  35. Bernstein, Jeffrey I. & Mamuneas, Theofanis P., 2006. "R&D depreciation, stocks, user costs and productivity growth for US R&D intensive industries," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 70-98, January.
  36. Mabrouki, Mohamed, 2017. "Analyse empirique de la relation entre les décisions de renouvellement des brevets et les montants d’annuités
    [Empirical analysis of the relationship between patent renewal decisions and the amount
    ," MPRA Paper 80484, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  37. Madsen, Jakob B., 2007. "Technology spillover through trade and TFP convergence: 135 years of evidence for the OECD countries," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 464-480, July.
  38. Antoine Dechezleprêtre & Yann Ménière & Myra Mohnen, 2017. "International patent families: from application strategies to statistical indicators," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 111(2), pages 793-828, May.
  39. Ke, Shanzi & Luger, Michael I., 1996. "Embodied technological progress, technology-related producer inputs, and regional factors in a firm-level model of growth," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 23-50, February.
  40. Martin S. Meyer & Puay Tang, 2007. "Exploring the “value” of academic patents: IP management practices in UK universities and their implications for Third-Stream indicators," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 70(2), pages 415-440, February.
  41. Michi Nishihara, 2014. "Valuation of sequential R&D investment under technological, market, and rival preemption uncertainty," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business 14-13, Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics.
  42. Kafouros, Mario I. & Forsans, Nicolas, 2012. "The role of open innovation in emerging economies: Do companies profit from the scientific knowledge of others?," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 362-370.
  43. Symeonidis, George, 2001. "Price Competition, Innovation and Profitability: Theory and UK Evidence," CEPR Discussion Papers 2816, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  44. Lepage Henri, 1990. "Les Brevets Dans La Strategie Des Entreprises : Le Cas Français," Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines, De Gruyter, vol. 1(2), pages 1-26, June.
  45. Clancy, Matthew S., 2018. "Inventing by combining pre-existing technologies: Patent evidence on learning and fishing out," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 252-265.
  46. Sterzi, Valerio, 2011. "Academic patent value and knowledge transfer in the UK. Does patent ownership matter?," MPRA Paper 34955, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  47. Frankort, Hans T.W., 2016. "When does knowledge acquisition in R&D alliances increase new product development? The moderating roles of technological relatedness and product-market competition," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 291-302.
  48. Bessen, James & Neuhäusler, Peter & Turner, John L. & Williams, Jonathan, 2018. "Trends in private patent costs and rents for publicly-traded United States firms," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 53-69.
  49. Krafft Jackie & Quatraro Francesco & Colombelli Alessandra, 2011. "High Growth Firms and Technological Knowledge: Do gazelles follow exploration or exploitation strategies?," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis LEI & BRICK - Laboratory of Economics of Innovation "Franco Momigliano", Bureau of Research in Innovation, Complexity and Knowledge, Collegio 201114, University of Turin.
  50. Bronwyn H. Hall & Adam B. Jaffe & Manuel Trajtenberg, 2000. "Market Value and Patent Citations: A First Look," NBER Working Papers 7741, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  51. Diego Comin, 2004. "R&D: A Small Contribution to Productivity Growth," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 9(4), pages 391-421, December.
  52. Siddiqi, Yusuf Salem, Meir, 2006. "A Proposal for Treating Research and Development As Capital Expenditures in the Canadian SNA," Economic Analysis (EA) Research Paper Series 2006040e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
  53. Federico Munari & Maurizio Sobrero, 2011. "Economic and Management Perspectives on the Value of Patents," Chapters, in: Federico Munari & Raffaele Oriani (ed.),The Economic Valuation of Patents, chapter 3, Edward Elgar Publishing.
  54. Kathuria, Vinish, 1998. "Foreign Firms and Technology Transfer Knowledge Spillovers to Indian Manufacturing Firms," UNU-INTECH Discussion Paper Series 1998-04, United Nations University - INTECH.
  55. Viral V. Acharya & Ramin P. Baghai & Krishnamurthy V. Subramanian, 2014. "Wrongful Discharge Laws and Innovation," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 27(1), pages 301-346, January.
  56. Kafouros, Mario I. & Buckley, Peter J., 2008. "Under what conditions do firms benefit from the research efforts of other organizations?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 225-239, March.
  57. M. Ishaq Nadiri, 1993. "Innovations and Technological Spillovers," NBER Working Papers 4423, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  58. Rudyk, Ilja, 2013. "Deferred Patent Examination," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 416, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
  59. Bulat Sanditov, 2005. "Patent Citations, the Value of Innovations and Path-Dependency," KITeS Working Papers 177, KITeS, Centre for Knowledge, Internationalization and Technology Studies, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy, revised Nov 2005.
  60. Shah, Anwar & DEC, 1994. "The economics of research and development : how research and development capital affects production and markets and is affected by tax incentives," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1325, The World Bank.
  61. Hall, Bronwyn H. & Mairesse, Jacques & Mohnen, Pierre, 2010. "Measuring the Returns to R&D," Handbook of the Economics of Innovation, in: Bronwyn H. Hall & Nathan Rosenberg (ed.),Handbook of the Economics of Innovation, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 0, pages 1033-1082, Elsevier.
  62. Beneito, Pilar & Rochina-Barrachina, María Engracia & Sanchis, Amparo, 2015. "The path of R&D efficiency over time," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 57-69.
  63. James Bessen & Eric Maskin, 2009. "Sequential innovation, patents, and imitation," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 40(4), pages 611-635, December.
  64. Dietmar Harhoff & Frederic M. Scherer & Katrin Vopel, 1997. "Exploring the Tail of Patented Invention Value Distributions," CIG Working Papers FS IV 97-27, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG).
  65. Benhabib, Jess & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1991. "Externalities and Growth Accounting," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(1), pages 82-113, March.
  66. John Laitner & Dmitriy Stolyarov, 2003. "Technological Change and the Stock Market," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(4), pages 1240-1267, September.
  67. Lucia Foster & John C. Haltiwanger & C. J. Krizan, 2001. "Aggregate Productivity Growth: Lessons from Microeconomic Evidence," NBER Chapters, in: New Developments in Productivity Analysis, pages 303-372, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  68. Mark Schankerman, 1991. "How Valuable is Patent Protection? Estimates By Technology Field Using Patent Renewal Data," NBER Working Papers 3780, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  69. Svensson, Roger, 2015. "Measuring Innovation Using Patent Data," Working Paper Series 1067, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  70. Zhang, Gupeng & Duan, Hongbo & Wang, Shouyang & Zhang, Qianlong, 2018. "Comparative technological advantages between China and developed areas in respect of energy production: Quantitative and qualitative measurements based on patents," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 162(C), pages 1223-1233.
  71. Jiann-Chyuan Wang & Kuen-Hung Tsai, 2003. "Productivity Growth and R&D Expenditure in Taiwan's Manufacturing Firms," NBER Working Papers 9724, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  72. Bas Straathof & Sander van Veldhuizen, 2012. "Market size, institutions, and the value of rights provided by patents," CPB Discussion Paper 226.rdf, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
  73. Jean O. Lanjouw & Mark Schankerman, 1999. "The Quality of Ideas: Measuring Innovation with Multiple Indicators," NBER Working Papers 7345, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  74. Jinyoung Kim, 2015. "Patent Portfolio Management of Sequential Innovations: Theory and Empirics," Discussion Paper Series 1504, Institute of Economic Research, Korea University.
  75. Sterzi, Valerio, 2013. "Patent quality and ownership: An analysis of UK faculty patenting," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 564-576.
  76. Zhang, Gupeng & Lv, Xiaofeng & Zhou, Jianghua, 2014. "Private value of patent right and patent infringement: An empirical study based on patent renewal data of China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 37-54.
  77. John Lester & Jacek Warda, 2018. "An International Comparison of Tax Assistance for R&D: 2017 Update and Extension to Patent Boxes," SPP Research Papers, The School of Public Policy, University of Calgary, vol. 11(13), April.
  78. Chava, Sudheer & Oettl, Alexander & Subramanian, Ajay & Subramanian, Krishnamurthy V., 2013. "Banking deregulation and innovation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(3), pages 759-774.
  79. Deng, Yi, 2011. "A dynamic stochastic analysis of international patent application and renewal processes," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 766-777.
  80. Michi Nishihara, 2017. "Valuation of an R&D project with three types of uncertainty," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business 17-15, Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics.
  81. Dai, Rui & Zhang, Jianxiong, 2017. "Green process innovation and differentiated pricing strategies with environmental concerns of South-North markets," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 132-150.
  82. Kafouros, Mario I. & Buckley, Peter J. & Clegg, Jeremy, 2012. "The effects of global knowledge reservoirs on the productivity of multinational enterprises: The role of international depth and breadth," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(5), pages 848-861.
  83. Weng, Qian & Söderbom, Måns, 2018. "Is R&D cash flow sensitive? Evidence from Chinese industrial firms," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 77-95.
  84. Jakob B. Madsen, 2009. "Trade Barriers, Openness, and Economic Growth," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 397-418, October.
  85. Acharya, Viral V & Baghai, Ramin & Subramanian, Krishnamurthy, 2009. "Labor Laws and Innovation," CEPR Discussion Papers 7171, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  86. Garcés-Ayerbe, Concepción & Cañón-de-Francia, Joaquín, 2017. "The Relevance of Complementarities in the Study of the Economic Consequences of Environmental Proactivity: Analysis of the Moderating Effect of Innovation Efforts," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 142(C), pages 21-30.
  87. Goodridge, PR & Haskel, J, 2015. "How does big data affect GDP? Theory and evidence for the UK," Working Papers 25156, Imperial College, London, Imperial College Business School.
  88. Herz, Benedikt & Mejer, Malwina, 2019. "Effects of the European Union trademark: Lessons for the harmonization of intellectual property systems," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(7), pages 1841-1854.
  89. Trajtenberg, Manuel, 1987. "Patents, Citations and Innovations: Tracing the Links," Foerder Institute for Economic Research Working Papers 275436, Tel-Aviv University > Foerder Institute for Economic Research.
  90. Deng, Yi, 2007. "The effects of patent regime changes: A case study of the European patent office," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 121-138, February.
  91. Mabrouki, Mohamed, 2018. "Le brevet : un instrument efficace pour promouvoir l’innovation au profit de la croissance ou un mal nécessaire ?
    [Patent: an effective instrument to promote innovation for the benefit of growth or
    ," MPRA Paper 85752, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  92. Subramanian, Krishnamurthy V., 2018. "Dismissal Laws, Innovation, and Economic Growth," ADBI Working Papers 846, Asian Development Bank Institute.
  93. Song, Kisik & Kim, Kyuwoong & Lee, Sungjoo, 2018. "Identifying promising technologies using patents: A retrospective feature analysis and a prospective needs analysis on outlier patents," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 128(C), pages 118-132.
  94. Wagner, Stefan & Wakeman, Simon, 2016. "What do patent-based measures tell us about product commercialization? Evidence from the pharmaceutical industry," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(5), pages 1091-1102.
  95. Han, Sang Yun & Bae, Sung Joo, 2014. "Internalization of R&D outsourcing: An empirical study," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 150(C), pages 58-73.
  96. Barirani, Ahmad & Beaudry, Catherine & Agard, Bruno, 2017. "Can universities profit from general purpose inventions? The case of Canadian nanotechnology patents," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 120(C), pages 271-283.
  97. Blazsek, Szabolcs & Escribano, Alvaro, 2016. "Patent propensity, R&D and market competition: Dynamic spillovers of innovation leaders and followers," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 191(1), pages 145-163.
  98. Hussinger, Katrin & Pacher, Sebastian, 2019. "Information ambiguity, patents and the market value of innovative assets," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 665-675.
  99. repec:eee:labchp:v:3:y:1999:i:pb:p:2711-2805 is not listed on IDEAS
  100. Rachel Griffith & David Sandler & John Van Reenen, 1995. "Tax incentives for R&D," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 16(2), pages 21-44, May.
  101. Bronwyn H. Hall, 1993. "R&D Tax Policy During the 1980s: Success or Failure?," NBER Chapters, in: Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 7, pages 1-36, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  102. Andre Steenkamp & Mark Schaffer & Wayde Flowerday & John Gabriel Goddard, 2018. "Innovation activity in South Africa: Measuring the returns to R&D," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2018-42, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  103. Hyunbae Chun & Jung-Wook Kim & Jason Lee & Randall Morck, 2004. "Patterns of Comovement: The Role of Information Technology in the U.S. Economy," NBER Working Papers 10937, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  104. Martin Mellens & Herman Noordman & Johan Verbruggen, 2007. "Re-exports: international comparison and implications for performance indicators," CPB Document 149.rdf, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
  105. MABROUKI, Mohamed, 2017. "Le brevet instrument de politique économique pour promouvoir l’innovation au profit de la croissance : discussion théorique
    [The patent economic policy instrument to promote innovation for growth:
    ," MPRA Paper 80317, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  106. de Rassenfosse, Gaétan & Jaffe, Adam B., 2018. "Econometric evidence on the depreciation of innovations," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 625-642.
  107. Mohamed MABROUKI, 2018. "Determination Of Optimal Patent Length In Favor Of Innovation And Growth," Journal of Smart Economic Growth, , vol. 3(1), pages 57-75, Juin.
  108. Bessen, James, 2009. "Estimates of patent rents from firm market value," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 1604-1616, December.
  109. Koutroumpis, Pantelis & Leiponen, Aija & Thomas, Llewellyn D.W., 2020. "Small is big in ICT: The impact of R&D on productivity," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(1).
  110. Marc Gruber & Dietmar Harhoff & Karin Hoisl, 2013. "Knowledge Recombination Across Technological Boundaries: Scientists vs. Engineers," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 59(4), pages 837-851, April.
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