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Internal and external R&D: complements or substitutes? Evidence from a dynamic panel data model

  • Boris Lokshin
  • Rene Belderbos
  • Martin Carree

We examine the impact of internal and external R&D on labor productivity in a 6-year panel of 304 innovating firms. We apply a dynamic linear panel data model that allows for decreasing returns to scale in internal and external R&D with a non-linear approximation of changes in the knowledge stock. We find complementarity between internal and external R&D, with a positive impact of external R&D only evident in case of sufficient internal R&D. The findings confirm the role of internal R&D in enhancing absorptive capacity and hence the effective utilization of external knowledge. These results suggest that empirical studies examining complementarities between continuously measured practices should adopt more general non-linear specifications to allow for correct inferences.

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File URL: http://hi-stat.ier.hit-u.ac.jp/research/discussion/2006/pdf/D06-163.pdf
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Paper provided by Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University in its series Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series with number d06-163.

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Date of creation: May 2006
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Handle: RePEc:hst:hstdps:d06-163
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  1. Richard Blundell & Steve Bond, 1999. "GMM estimation with persistent panel data: an application to production functions," IFS Working Papers W99/04, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  2. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
  3. Miravete, Eugenio J. & Pernias, Jose C., 1998. "Innovation Complementarity and Scale of Production," Working Papers 98-42, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
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  5. René Belderbos & Martin Carree & Boris Lokshin, 2006. "Complementarity in R&D Cooperation Strategies," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 28(4), pages 401-426, June.
  6. Arora, Ashish & Gambardella, Alfonso, 1990. "Complementarity and External Linkages: The Strategies of the Large Firms in Biotechnology," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(4), pages 361-79, June.
  7. Rachel Griffith & Stephen Redding & John Van Reenen, 2000. "Mapping the two faces of R&D: productivity growth in a panel of OECD industries," IFS Working Papers W00/02, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  8. Pierre Mohnen & Lars-Hendrik Röller, 2000. "Complementarities in Innovation Policy," CIG Working Papers FS IV 00-18, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG).
  9. Jacques Mairesse & Mohamed Sassenou, 1991. "R&D Productivity: A Survey of Econometric Studies at the Firm Level," NBER Working Papers 3666, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. R Blundell & Steven Bond, . "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data model," Economics Papers W14&104., Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
  11. Rachel Griffith & Stephen Redding & John Van Reenen, 2003. "R&D and Absorptive Capacity: Theory and Empirical Evidence," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 105(1), pages 99-118, 03.
  12. Lionel Nesta & Pier Paolo Saviotti, 2005. "COHERENCE OF THE KNOWLEDGE BASE AND THE FIRM'S INNOVATIVE PERFORMANCE: EVIDENCE FROM THE U.S. PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY -super-* ," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(1), pages 123-142, 03.
  13. Audretsch, D-B & Menkveld, A-J & Thurik, A-R, 1996. "The Decision Between Internal and External R&D," Papers 9603/e, NEUHUYS - RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM.
  14. Arora, Ashish, 1996. "Testing for complementarities in reduced-form regressions: A note," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 51-55, January.
  15. Fuss, Melvyn & McFadden, Daniel & Mundlak, Yair, 1978. "A Survey of Functional Forms in the Economic Analysis of Production," Histoy of Economic Thought Chapters, in: Fuss, Melvyn & McFadden, Daniel (ed.), Production Economics: A Dual Approach to Theory and Applications, volume 1, chapter 4 McMaster University Archive for the History of Economic Thought.
  16. Windmeijer, Frank, 2005. "A finite sample correction for the variance of linear efficient two-step GMM estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 126(1), pages 25-51, May.
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