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Complementarities in innovation policy

  • Mohnen, Pierre
  • Roller, Lars-Hendrik

This paper develops a framework for testing discrete complementarities in innovation policy using European data on obstacles to innovation. We propose a discrete test of supermodularity in innovation policy leading to a number of inequality constraints. We apply our test to two types of innovation decisions: to innovate or not, and if so, by how much. We find that industries display a considerable amount of complementarity, with some industries being complementary across all obstacles. We also find that the lack internal human capital (skilled personnel) is complementary to all the other obstacles in almost all industries. In this sense, our results suggest that internal human capital is key for any innovation policy, insofar that it is complementary to all the other factors that might hamper innovation activities. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG - (Innovationspolitik als komplementäres System) In diesem Beitrag wird die Innovationsfähigkeit von Unternehmen in Abhängigkeit von Standortfaktoren - wie etwa die Bereitstellung von Risikokapital, staatliche Regulierungen, und qualifizierte Mitarbeiter - als komplementäres System modelliert. Es wird aufgezeigt, wie die neue Komplementaritätstheorie in der empirischen Innovationsforschung angewandt werden kann, indem die Innovationsfunktion von Unternehmen auf die Eigenschaft der Supermodularität hin überprüft wird. Unter Berücksichtigung dieses Ansatzes wird, anhand von Innovationsdaten aus der CIS Datenbank, die Komplementaritätshypothese für eine Reihe von Industrien und Länder untersucht. Die Ergebnisse zeigen auf, daß viele Branchen von einem beträchtlichen Maße an Komplementarität gekennzeichnet sind. Damit bestätigen die Befunde, daß Innovationen, in bestimmten Branchen, ein koordiniertes Handeln der unter­schiedlichen Standortfaktoren voraussetzt. Als höchst komplementär zu allen anderen Stand­ortfaktoren in fast allen Industriezweigen erweist sich der Mangel an qualifiziertem Human­kapital. In diesem Sinne bekräftigen unsere Er

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Article provided by Elsevier in its journal European Economic Review.

Volume (Year): 49 (2005)
Issue (Month): 6 (August)
Pages: 1431-1450

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Handle: RePEc:eee:eecrev:v:49:y:2005:i:6:p:1431-1450
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/eer

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  1. Miravete, Eugenio J. & Pernias, Jose C., 1998. "Innovation Complementarity and Scale of Production," Working Papers 98-42, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
  2. Mairesse Jacques & Mohnen Pierre, 2001. "To Be Or Not To Be Innovative: An Exercise In Measurement," Research Memorandum 038, Maastricht University, Maastricht Economic Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  3. Milgrom, Paul & Roberts, John, 1990. "The Economics of Modern Manufacturing: Technology, Strategy, and Organization," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(3), pages 511-28, June.
  4. Arora, Ashish, 1996. "Testing for complementarities in reduced-form regressions: A note," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 51-55, January.
  5. Ichniowski, Casey & Shaw, Kathryn & Prennushi, Giovanna, 1997. "The Effects of Human Resource Management Practices on Productivity: A Study of Steel Finishing Lines," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(3), pages 291-313, June.
  6. Milgrom, Paul & Roberts, John, 1994. "Complementarities and systems: Understanding japanese economic organization," Estudios Económicos, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Económicos, vol. 9(1), pages 3-42.
  7. Dosi, Giovanni, 1988. "Sources, Procedures, and Microeconomic Effects of Innovation," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 26(3), pages 1120-71, September.
  8. Vives, Xavier, 1990. "Nash equilibrium with strategic complementarities," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 305-321.
  9. Kodde, David A & Palm, Franz C, 1986. "Wald Criteria for Jointly Testing Equality and Inequality Restriction s," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(5), pages 1243-48, September.
  10. Milgrom, Paul & Shannon, Chris, 1994. "Monotone Comparative Statics," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(1), pages 157-80, January.
  11. Arora, Ashish & Gambardella, Alfonso, 1990. "Complementarity and External Linkages: The Strategies of the Large Firms in Biotechnology," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(4), pages 361-79, June.
  12. Cassiman, Bruno & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 2002. "Complementarity in the innovation strategy: Internal R&D, external technology acquisition, and cooperation in R&D," IESE Research Papers D/457, IESE Business School.
  13. Susan Athey & Scott Stern, 1998. "An Empirical Framework for Testing Theories About Complimentarity in Organizational Design," NBER Working Papers 6600, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. North, Douglass C., 1993. "Economic Performance through Time," Nobel Prize in Economics documents 1993-2, Nobel Prize Committee.
  15. Richard C. Levin & Alvin K. Klevorick & Richard R. Nelson & Sidney G. Winter, 1988. "Appropriating the Returns from Industrial R&D," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 862, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  16. Cassiman, Bruno & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 2002. "Complementarity in the Innovation Strategy: Internal R&D, External Technology Acquisition and Cooperation," CEPR Discussion Papers 3284, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  17. Holmstrom, Bengt & Milgrom, Paul, 1994. "The Firm as an Incentive System," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 972-91, September.
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