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Complementarity and External Linkages: The Strategies of the Large Firms in Biotechnology


  • Arora, Ashish
  • Gambardella, Alfonso


In biotechnology, large firms enter into different kinds of linkages with universities and small/medium sized research-intensive firms. The authors test the hypothesis that the strategies of external linkage of the large firms with other parties are complementary to one another. They show that if any two strategies are complementary (i.e., undertaking more of one strategy raises the marginal value of the other), then they are positively correlated. Using data for a sample of large U.S., European, and Japanese chemical and pharmaceutical producers, the authors find that the strategies above are positively correlated even after controlling for firm-specific characteristics. Copyright 1990 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Suggested Citation

  • Arora, Ashish & Gambardella, Alfonso, 1990. "Complementarity and External Linkages: The Strategies of the Large Firms in Biotechnology," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(4), pages 361-379, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:jindec:v:38:y:1990:i:4:p:361-79

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Porter, Michael E, 1976. "Interbrand Choice, Media Mix and Market Performance," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 66(2), pages 398-406, May.
    2. Nickell, Stephen J & Metcalf, David, 1978. "Monopolistic Industries and Monopoly Profits or, Are Kellogg's Cornflakes Overpriced?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 88(350), pages 254-268, June.
    3. Pagoulatos, Emilio & Sorensen, Robert, 1986. "What determines the elasticity of industry demand?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 237-250, September.
    4. Joseph E. Stiglitz & G. Frank Mathewson (ed.), 1986. "New Developments in the Analysis of Market Structure," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262690934, January.
    5. Cowling, Keith & Waterson, Michael, 1976. "Price-Cost Margins and Market Structure," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 43(171), pages 267-274, August.
    6. Connor, John M & Peterson, Everett B, 1992. "Market-Structure Determinants of National Brand-Private Label Price Differences of Manufactured Food Products," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(2), pages 157-171, June.
    7. A. P. Lerner, 1934. "The Concept of Monopoly and the Measurement of Monopoly Power," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 1(3), pages 157-175.
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