IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/intfor/v32y2016i2p475-501.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Frontiers in VaR forecasting and backtesting

Author

Listed:
  • Nieto, Maria Rosa
  • Ruiz, Esther

Abstract

The interest in forecasting the Value at Risk (VaR) has been growing over the last two decades, due to the practical relevance of this risk measure for financial and insurance institutions. Furthermore, VaR forecasts are often used as a testing ground when fitting alternative models for representing the dynamic evolution of time series of financial returns. There are vast numbers of alternative methods for constructing and evaluating VaR forecasts. In this paper, we survey the new benchmarks proposed in the recent literature.

Suggested Citation

  • Nieto, Maria Rosa & Ruiz, Esther, 2016. "Frontiers in VaR forecasting and backtesting," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 475-501.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:intfor:v:32:y:2016:i:2:p:475-501
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ijforecast.2015.08.003
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016920701500120X
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Christian T. Brownlees & Giampiero M. Gallo, 2010. "Comparison of Volatility Measures: a Risk Management Perspective," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 8(1), pages 29-56, Winter.
    2. Christophe Pérignon & R.D. Smith, 2008. "A New Approach to Comparing VaR Estimation Methods," Post-Print hal-00854087, HAL.
    3. Komunjer, Ivana, 2005. "Quasi-maximum likelihood estimation for conditional quantiles," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 128(1), pages 137-164, September.
    4. Michael McAleer & Juan‐Ángel Jiménez‐Martín & Teodosio Pérez‐Amaral, 2013. "International Evidence on GFC‐Robust Forecasts for Risk Management under the Basel Accord," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 32(3), pages 267-288, April.
    5. Franck Moraux, 2011. "How valuable is your VaR? Large sample confidence intervals for normal VaR," Post-Print halshs-00600718, HAL.
    6. Hoogerheide, Lennart & van Dijk, Herman K., 2010. "Bayesian forecasting of Value at Risk and Expected Shortfall using adaptive importance sampling," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 231-247, April.
    7. Kevin Dowd & David Blake, 2006. "After VaR: The Theory, Estimation, and Insurance Applications of Quantile-Based Risk Measures," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 73(2), pages 193-229.
    8. Liu, Shouwei & Tse, Yiu-Kuen, 2015. "Intraday Value-at-Risk: An asymmetric autoregressive conditional duration approach," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 189(2), pages 437-446.
    9. Hang Chan, Ngai & Deng, Shi-Jie & Peng, Liang & Xia, Zhendong, 2007. "Interval estimation of value-at-risk based on GARCH models with heavy-tailed innovations," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 137(2), pages 556-576, April.
    10. Zongrun Wang & Weitao Wu & Chao Chen & Yanju Zhou, 2010. "The exchange rate risk of Chinese yuan: Using VaR and ES based on extreme value theory," Journal of Applied Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(2), pages 265-282.
    11. Christoffersen, Peter & Hahn, Jinyong & Inoue, Atsushi, 2001. "Testing and comparing Value-at-Risk measures," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 325-342, July.
    12. Giacomini, Raffaella & Komunjer, Ivana, 2005. "Evaluation and Combination of Conditional Quantile Forecasts," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 23, pages 416-431, October.
    13. James W. Taylor, 2008. "Using Exponentially Weighted Quantile Regression to Estimate Value at Risk and Expected Shortfall," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 6(3), pages 382-406, Summer.
    14. Giot, Pierre & Laurent, Sebastien, 2004. "Modelling daily Value-at-Risk using realized volatility and ARCH type models," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 379-398, June.
    15. Bertrand Candelon & Gilbert Colletaz & Christophe Hurlin & Sessi Tokpavi, 2011. "Backtesting Value-at-Risk: A GMM Duration-Based Test," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 9(2), pages 314-343, Spring.
    16. Christophe Hurlin & Sessi Tokpavi, 2006. "Backtesting Value at Risk Accuracy : A New Simple Test," Post-Print halshs-00257520, HAL.
    17. Danielsson, J. & de Haan, L. & Peng, L. & de Vries, C. G., 2001. "Using a Bootstrap Method to Choose the Sample Fraction in Tail Index Estimation," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 226-248, February.
    18. Stoyanov, Stoyan V. & Rachev, Svetlozar T. & Fabozzi, Frank J., 2013. "CVaR sensitivity with respect to tail thickness," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 977-988.
    19. Tae-Hwy Lee & Yong Bao & Burak Saltoglu, 2006. "Evaluating predictive performance of value-at-risk models in emerging markets: a reality check," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(2), pages 101-128.
    20. Zikovic, Sasa & Aktan, Bora, 2011. "Decay factor optimisation in time weighted simulation -- Evaluating VaR performance," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 1147-1159, October.
    21. Gourieroux, Christian & Zakoïan, Jean-Michel, 2013. "Estimation-Adjusted Var," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 29(04), pages 735-770, August.
    22. Martins-Filho Carlos & Yao Feng, 2006. "Estimation of Value-at-Risk and Expected Shortfall based on Nonlinear Models of Return Dynamics and Extreme Value Theory," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 10(2), pages 1-43, May.
    23. Gneiting, Tilmann, 2011. "Making and Evaluating Point Forecasts," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 106(494), pages 746-762.
    24. Wagner Piazza Gaglianone & Luiz Renato Lima & Oliver Linton & Daniel R. Smith, 2011. "Evaluating Value-at-Risk Models via Quantile Regression," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(1), pages 150-160, January.
    25. Jeremy Berkowitz & James O'Brien, 2002. "How Accurate Are Value-at-Risk Models at Commercial Banks?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(3), pages 1093-1111, June.
    26. Cai, Zongwu & Wang, Xian, 2008. "Nonparametric estimation of conditional VaR and expected shortfall," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 147(1), pages 120-130, November.
    27. Raffaella Giacomini & Halbert White, 2006. "Tests of Conditional Predictive Ability," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 74(6), pages 1545-1578, November.
    28. Hansen, Bruce E, 1994. "Autoregressive Conditional Density Estimation," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 35(3), pages 705-730, August.
    29. Ruiz, Esther & Pascual, Lorenzo, 2002. " Bootstrapping Financial Time Series," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(3), pages 271-300, July.
    30. Ivana Komunjer, 2007. "Asymmetric power distribution: Theory and applications to risk measurement," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(5), pages 891-921.
    31. Hall, Peter & Yao, Qiwei, 2003. "Inference in ARCH and GARCH models with heavy-tailed errors," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 5875, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    32. Araújo Santos, P. & Fraga Alves, M.I., 2012. "A new class of independence tests for interval forecasts evaluation," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 56(11), pages 3366-3380.
    33. So, Mike K.P. & Yu, Philip L.H., 2006. "Empirical analysis of GARCH models in value at risk estimation," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 180-197, April.
    34. Pierre Giot & Sébastien Laurent, 2003. "Value-at-risk for long and short trading positions," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(6), pages 641-663.
    35. Mancini, Loriano & Ronchetti, Elvezio & Trojani, Fabio, 2005. "Optimal Conditionally Unbiased Bounded-Influence Inference in Dynamic Location and Scale Models," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 100, pages 628-641, June.
    36. Robert F. Engle & Jeffrey R. Russell, 1998. "Autoregressive Conditional Duration: A New Model for Irregularly Spaced Transaction Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(5), pages 1127-1162, September.
    37. Jeff Fleming & Chris Kirby, 2003. "A Closer Look at the Relation between GARCH and Stochastic Autoregressive Volatility," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 1(3), pages 365-419.
    38. Yi, Yanping & Feng, Xingdong & Huang, Zhuo, 2014. "Estimation of extreme value-at-risk: An EVT approach for quantile GARCH model," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 124(3), pages 378-381.
    39. Chen, Ying & Härdle, Wolfgang & Jeong, Seok-Oh, 2008. "Nonparametric Risk Management With Generalized Hyperbolic Distributions," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 103(483), pages 910-923.
    40. Koenker, Roger W & Bassett, Gilbert, Jr, 1978. "Regression Quantiles," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 33-50, January.
    41. Nelson, Daniel B, 1991. "Conditional Heteroskedasticity in Asset Returns: A New Approach," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(2), pages 347-370, March.
    42. Panayiotis Theodossiou, 1998. "Financial Data and the Skewed Generalized T Distribution," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 44(12-Part-1), pages 1650-1661, December.
    43. María José Rodríguez & Esther Ruiz, 2012. "Revisiting Several Popular GARCH Models with Leverage Effect: Differences and Similarities," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 10(4), pages 637-668, September.
    44. Yun Gong & Zhouping Li & Liang Peng, 2010. "Empirical likelihood intervals for conditional Value-at-Risk in ARCH/GARCH models," Journal of Time Series Analysis, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(2), pages 65-75, March.
    45. Berkowitz, Jeremy, 2001. "Testing Density Forecasts, with Applications to Risk Management," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 19(4), pages 465-474, October.
    46. Jalal, Amine & Rockinger, Michael, 2008. "Predicting tail-related risk measures: The consequences of using GARCH filters for non-GARCH data," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(5), pages 868-877, December.
    47. Wong, Woon K., 2010. "Backtesting value-at-risk based on tail losses," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 526-538, June.
    48. Huixia Judy Wang & Deyuan Li & Xuming He, 2012. "Estimation of High Conditional Quantiles for Heavy-Tailed Distributions," Journal of the American Statistical Association, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 107(500), pages 1453-1464, December.
    49. Richard H. Gerlach & Cathy W. S. Chen & Nancy Y. C. Chan, 2011. "Bayesian Time-Varying Quantile Forecasting for Value-at-Risk in Financial Markets," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(4), pages 481-492, October.
    50. Asai, Manabu & McAleer, Michael, 2008. "A Portfolio Index GARCH model," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 449-461.
    51. Ding, Zhuanxin & Granger, Clive W. J. & Engle, Robert F., 1993. "A long memory property of stock market returns and a new model," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 83-106, June.
    52. Robert Engle, 2004. "Risk and Volatility: Econometric Models and Financial Practice," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(3), pages 405-420, June.
    53. Lehar, Alfred & Scheicher, Martin & Schittenkopf, Christian, 2002. "GARCH vs. stochastic volatility: Option pricing and risk management," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(2-3), pages 323-345, March.
    54. Chan, Ngai Hang & Li, Deyuan & Peng, Liang & Zhang, Rongmao, 2013. "Tail Index Of An Ar(1) Model With Arch(1) Errors," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 29(05), pages 920-940, October.
    55. Keith Kuester & Stefan Mittnik & Marc S. Paolella, 2006. "Value-at-Risk Prediction: A Comparison of Alternative Strategies," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 4(1), pages 53-89.
    56. Jooyoung Jeon & James W. Taylor, 2013. "Using CAViaR Models with Implied Volatility for Value‐at‐Risk Estimation," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 32(1), pages 62-74, January.
    57. Huang Dashan & Yu Baimin & Lu Zudi & Fabozzi Frank J. & Focardi Sergio & Fukushima Masao, 2010. "Index-Exciting CAViaR: A New Empirical Time-Varying Risk Model," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 14(2), pages 1-26, March.
    58. Richard Gerlach & Zudi Lu & Hai Huang, 2013. "Exponentially Smoothing the Skewed Laplace Distribution for Value‐at‐Risk Forecasting," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 32(6), pages 534-550, September.
    59. John Geweke & Gianni Amisano, 2011. "Hierarchical Markov normal mixture models with applications to financial asset returns," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(1), pages 1-29, January/F.
    60. Hansen, Peter Reinhard, 2005. "A Test for Superior Predictive Ability," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 23, pages 365-380, October.
    61. John M. Maheu & Thomas H. McCurdy, 2004. "News Arrival, Jump Dynamics, and Volatility Components for Individual Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(2), pages 755-793, April.
    62. Paul H. Kupiec, 1995. "Techniques for verifying the accuracy of risk measurement models," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 95-24, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    63. Anders Wilhelmsson, 2009. "Value at Risk with time varying variance, skewness and kurtosis--the NIG-ACD model," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 12(1), pages 82-104, March.
    64. Sherman, Michael & Carlstein, Edward, 2004. "Confidence intervals based on estimators with unknown rates of convergence," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 123-139, May.
    65. De Rossi, Giuliano & Harvey, Andrew, 2009. "Quantiles, expectiles and splines," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 152(2), pages 179-185, October.
    66. Gao, Feng & Song, Fengming, 2008. "ESTIMATION RISK IN GARCH VaR AND ES ESTIMATES," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(05), pages 1404-1424, October.
    67. Michael McAleer, 2009. "The Ten Commandments For Optimizing Value-At-Risk And Daily Capital Charges," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(5), pages 831-849, December.
    68. Bertrand Candelon & Gilbert Colletaz & Christophe Hurlin & Sessi Tokpavi, 2011. "Backtesting Value-at-Risk: A GMM Duration-Based Test," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 9(2), pages 314-343, Spring.
    69. Pierre Giot & Sébastien Laurent, 2003. "Value-at-risk for long and short trading positions," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(6), pages 641-663.
    70. repec:taf:jnlbes:v:30:y:2012:i:1:p:1-17 is not listed on IDEAS
    71. Gloria Gonzalez-Rivera & Javier Arroyo & Carlos Mate & A. Munoz San Roque, 2011. "Smoothing Methods for Histogram-valued Time Series. An Application to Value-at-Risk," Working Papers 201433, University of California at Riverside, Department of Economics.
    72. Dimitrios P. Louzis & Spyros Xanthopoulos‐Sisinis & Apostolos P. Refenes, 2013. "The Role of High‐Frequency Intra‐daily Data, Daily Range and Implied Volatility in Multi‐period Value‐at‐Risk Forecasting," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 32(6), pages 561-576, September.
    73. Bertrand Candelon & Gilbert Colletaz & Christophe Hurlin & Sessi Tokpavi, 2011. "Backtesting Value-at-Risk: A GMM Duration-Based Test," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 9(2), pages 314-343, Spring.
    74. Daníelsson, Jón & Jorgensen, Bjørn N. & Samorodnitsky, Gennady & Sarma, Mandira & de Vries, Casper G., 2013. "Fat tails, VaR and subadditivity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 172(2), pages 283-291.
    75. Boucher, Christophe M. & Daníelsson, Jón & Kouontchou, Patrick S. & Maillet, Bertrand B., 2014. "Risk models-at-risk," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 72-92.
    76. Francq, Christian & Zakoïan, Jean-Michel, 2015. "Risk-parameter estimation in volatility models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 184(1), pages 158-173.
    77. Loriano Mancini & Fabio Trojani, 2011. "Robust Value at Risk Prediction," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 9(2), pages 281-313, Spring.
    78. repec:adr:anecst:y:2000:i:60 is not listed on IDEAS
    79. Song Xi Chen, 2008. "Nonparametric Estimation of Expected Shortfall," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 6(1), pages 87-107, Winter.
    80. Gourieroux, C. & Jasiak, J., 2008. "Dynamic quantile models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 147(1), pages 198-205, November.
    81. Giovanni Barone‐Adesi & Kostas Giannopoulos & Les Vosper, 1999. "VaR without correlations for portfolios of derivative securities," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(5), pages 583-602, August.
    82. Timotheos Angelidis & Alexandros Benos & Stavros Degiannakis, 2007. "A robust VaR model under different time periods and weighting schemes," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 187-201, February.
    83. Jon Danielsson & Casper G. De Vries, 2000. "Value-at-Risk and Extreme Returns," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 60, pages 239-270.
    84. Bollerslev, Tim, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 307-327, April.
    85. Ardia, David & Hoogerheide, Lennart F., 2014. "GARCH models for daily stock returns: Impact of estimation frequency on Value-at-Risk and Expected Shortfall forecasts," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 123(2), pages 187-190.
    86. Michael McAleer & Bernardo da Veiga, 2008. "Single-index and portfolio models for forecasting value-at-risk thresholds," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(3), pages 217-235.
    87. Yamai, Yasuhiro & Yoshiba, Toshinao, 2005. "Value-at-risk versus expected shortfall: A practical perspective," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 997-1015, April.
    88. Escanciano, Juan Carlos & Velasco, Carlos, 2010. "Specification tests of parametric dynamic conditional quantiles," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 159(1), pages 209-221, November.
    89. Fong Chan, Kam & Gray, Philip, 2006. "Using extreme value theory to measure value-at-risk for daily electricity spot prices," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 283-300.
    90. Kerkhof, Jeroen & Melenberg, Bertrand, 2004. "Backtesting for risk-based regulatory capital," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(8), pages 1845-1865, August.
    91. Cathy W.S. Chen & Richard Gerlach & Edward M. H. Lin & W. C. W. Lee, 2012. "Bayesian Forecasting for Financial Risk Management, Pre and Post the Global Financial Crisis," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(8), pages 661-687, December.
    92. Philip Yu & Wai Keung Li & Shusong Jin, 2010. "On Some Models for Value-At-Risk," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(5-6), pages 622-641.
    93. Chen, Cathy W.S. & Gerlach, Richard & Hwang, Bruce B.K. & McAleer, Michael, 2012. "Forecasting Value-at-Risk using nonlinear regression quantiles and the intra-day range," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 557-574.
    94. Diebold, Francis X & Mariano, Roberto S, 2002. "Comparing Predictive Accuracy," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(1), pages 134-144, January.
    95. Tolikas, Konstantinos, 2014. "Unexpected tails in risk measurement: Some international evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 476-493.
    96. Matteo Grigoletto & Francesco Lisi, 2011. "Practical implications of higher moments in risk management," Statistical Methods & Applications, Springer;Società Italiana di Statistica, vol. 20(4), pages 487-506, November.
    97. Newey, Whitney K & West, Kenneth D, 1987. "Hypothesis Testing with Efficient Method of Moments Estimation," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 28(3), pages 777-787, October.
    98. Rubia, Antonio & Sanchis-Marco, Lidia, 2013. "On downside risk predictability through liquidity and trading activity: A dynamic quantile approach," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 202-219.
    99. Xu, Ke-Li, 2013. "Nonparametric Inference For Conditional Quantiles Of Time Series," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 29(04), pages 673-698, August.
    100. McAleer, Michael & Jimenez-Martin, Juan-Angel & Perez-Amaral, Teodosio, 2013. "Has the Basel Accord improved risk management during the global financial crisis?," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 250-265.
    101. Danielsson, Jon & Jorgensen, Bjorn N. & Sarma, Mandira & de Vries, Casper G., 2006. "Comparing downside risk measures for heavy tailed distributions," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 92(2), pages 202-208, August.
    102. Bali, Turan G. & Mo, Hengyong & Tang, Yi, 2008. "The role of autoregressive conditional skewness and kurtosis in the estimation of conditional VaR," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 269-282, February.
    103. Pérignon, Christophe & Deng, Zi Yin & Wang, Zhi Jun, 2008. "Do banks overstate their Value-at-Risk?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 783-794, May.
    104. Colletaz, Gilbert & Hurlin, Christophe & Pérignon, Christophe, 2013. "The Risk Map: A new tool for validating risk models," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(10), pages 3843-3854.
    105. Gomes, M. Ivette & Pestana, Dinis, 2007. "A Sturdy Reduced-Bias Extreme Quantile (VaR) Estimator," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 102, pages 280-292, March.
    106. Dufour, Jean-Marie, 2006. "Monte Carlo tests with nuisance parameters: A general approach to finite-sample inference and nonstandard asymptotics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 133(2), pages 443-477, August.
    107. Şener, Emrah & Baronyan, Sayad & Ali Mengütürk, Levent, 2012. "Ranking the predictive performances of value-at-risk estimation methods," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 849-873.
    108. Cheng, Wan-Hsiu & Hung, Jui-Cheng, 2011. "Skewness and leptokurtosis in GARCH-typed VaR estimation of petroleum and metal asset returns," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 160-173, January.
    109. Gonzalez-Rivera, Gloria & Lee, Tae-Hwy & Yoldas, Emre, 2007. "Optimality of the RiskMetrics VaR model," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 137-145, September.
    110. Andrew Patton & Dimitris Politis & Halbert White, 2009. "Correction to “Automatic Block-Length Selection for the Dependent Bootstrap” by D. Politis and H. White," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(4), pages 372-375.
    111. Frésard, Laurent & Pérignon, Christophe & Wilhelmsson, Anders, 2011. "The pernicious effects of contaminated data in risk management," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 2569-2583, October.
    112. Michael P. Clements & Nick Taylor, 2003. "Evaluating interval forecasts of high-frequency financial data," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(4), pages 445-456.
    113. McNeil, Alexander J. & Frey, Rudiger, 2000. "Estimation of tail-related risk measures for heteroscedastic financial time series: an extreme value approach," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(3-4), pages 271-300, November.
    114. Chen, Qian & Gerlach, Richard & Lu, Zudi, 2012. "Bayesian Value-at-Risk and expected shortfall forecasting via the asymmetric Laplace distribution," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 56(11), pages 3498-3516.
    115. Robert F. Engle & Simone Manganelli, 2004. "CAViaR: Conditional Autoregressive Value at Risk by Regression Quantiles," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 22, pages 367-381, October.
    116. Laura Coroneo & David Veredas, 2012. "A simple two-component model for the distribution of intraday returns," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(9), pages 775-797, October.
    117. Fuertes, Ana-Maria & Olmo, Jose, 2013. "Optimally harnessing inter-day and intra-day information for daily value-at-risk prediction," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 28-42.
    118. Giannopoulos, Kostas & Tunaru, Radu, 2005. "Coherent risk measures under filtered historical simulation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 979-996, April.
    119. Stavros Degiannakis, 2004. "Volatility forecasting: evidence from a fractional integrated asymmetric power ARCH skewed-t model," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(18), pages 1333-1342.
    120. Pascual, Lorenzo & Romo, Juan & Ruiz, Esther, 2006. "Bootstrap prediction for returns and volatilities in GARCH models," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 50(9), pages 2293-2312, May.
    121. Hill, Jonathan B., 2010. "On Tail Index Estimation For Dependent, Heterogeneous Data," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 26(05), pages 1398-1436, October.
    122. Halbleib, Roxana & Pohlmeier, Winfried, 2012. "Improving the value at risk forecasts: Theory and evidence from the financial crisis," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 1212-1228.
    123. Huisman, Ronald, et al, 2001. "Tail-Index Estimates in Small Samples," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 19(2), pages 208-216, April.
    124. Clements, Michael P. & Galvão, Ana Beatriz & Kim, Jae H., 2008. "Quantile forecasts of daily exchange rate returns from forecasts of realized volatility," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 729-750, September.
    125. Jeremy Berkowitz & Peter Christoffersen & Denis Pelletier, 2011. "Evaluating Value-at-Risk Models with Desk-Level Data," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 57(12), pages 2213-2227, December.
    126. Escanciano, J. Carlos & Olmo, Jose, 2010. "Backtesting Parametric Value-at-Risk With Estimation Risk," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 28(1), pages 36-51.
    127. Ibrahim Ergen, 2015. "Two-step methods in VaR prediction and the importance of fat tails," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(6), pages 1013-1030, June.
    128. Jesus Gonzalo, 2004. "Which Extreme Values Are Really Extreme?," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 2(3), pages 349-369.
    129. Huiyu Huang & Tae-Hwy Lee, 2013. "Forecasting Value-at-Risk Using High-Frequency Information," Econometrics, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 1(1), pages 1-14, June.
    130. Escanciano, Juan Carlos & Pei, Pei, 2012. "Pitfalls in backtesting Historical Simulation VaR models," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 2233-2244.
    131. Christophe Hurlin & Sessi Tokpavi, 2006. "Backtesting Value at Risk Accuracy : A New Simple Test," Post-Print halshs-00257461, HAL.
    132. Peter Christoffersen, 2004. "Backtesting Value-at-Risk: A Duration-Based Approach," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 2(1), pages 84-108.
    133. Carlo Acerbi & Dirk Tasche, 2002. "Expected Shortfall: A Natural Coherent Alternative to Value at Risk," Economic Notes, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena SpA, vol. 31(2), pages 379-388, July.
    134. Song Xi Chen, 2005. "Nonparametric Inference of Value-at-Risk for Dependent Financial Returns," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 3(2), pages 227-255.
    135. Chen, Qian & Gerlach, Richard H., 2013. "The two-sided Weibull distribution and forecasting financial tail risk," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 527-540.
    136. Turan Bali & Panayiotis Theodossiou, 2007. "A conditional-SGT-VaR approach with alternative GARCH models," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 151(1), pages 241-267, April.
    137. Broda, Simon A. & Haas, Markus & Krause, Jochen & Paolella, Marc S. & Steude, Sven C., 2013. "Stable mixture GARCH models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 172(2), pages 292-306.
    138. Christophe Perignon & D. Smith, 2009. "The Level and Quality of Value-at-Risk Disclosure by Commercial Banks," Post-Print hal-00496102, HAL.
    139. Christoffersen, Peter F, 1998. "Evaluating Interval Forecasts," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(4), pages 841-862, November.
    140. Chavez-Demoulin, V. & Embrechts, P. & Sardy, S., 2014. "Extreme-quantile tracking for financial time series," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 181(1), pages 44-52.
    141. Chien-Liang Chiu & Ming-Chih Lee & Jui-Cheng Hung, 2005. "Estimation of Value-at-Risk under jump dynamics and asymmetric information," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(15), pages 1095-1106.
    142. Ziggel, Daniel & Berens, Tobias & Weiß, Gregor N.F. & Wied, Dominik, 2014. "A new set of improved Value-at-Risk backtests," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 29-41.
    143. Sajjad Rasoul & Coakley Jerry & Nankervis John C, 2008. "Markov-Switching GARCH Modelling of Value-at-Risk," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 12(3), pages 1-31, September.
    144. Pérignon, Christophe & Smith, Daniel R., 2010. "Diversification and Value-at-Risk," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 55-66, January.
    145. Dark Jonathan Graeme, 2010. "Estimation of Time Varying Skewness and Kurtosis with an Application to Value at Risk," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 14(2), pages 1-50, March.
    146. Pritsker, Matthew, 2006. "The hidden dangers of historical simulation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 561-582, February.
    147. M. Ivette Gomes & Laurens de Haan & Lígia Henriques Rodrigues, 2008. "Tail index estimation for heavy-tailed models: accommodation of bias in weighted log-excesses," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 70(1), pages 31-52.
    148. Roger Koenker & Zhijie Xiao, 2002. "Inference on the Quantile Regression Process," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(4), pages 1583-1612, July.
    149. Pérignon, Christophe & Smith, Daniel R., 2010. "The level and quality of Value-at-Risk disclosure by commercial banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 362-377, February.
    150. Ngai Chan & Liang Peng & Rongmao Zhang, 2012. "Interval estimation of the tail index of a GARCH(1,1) model," TEST: An Official Journal of the Spanish Society of Statistics and Operations Research, Springer;Sociedad de Estadística e Investigación Operativa, vol. 21(3), pages 546-565, September.
    151. Matteo Grigoletto & Francesco Lisi, 2009. "Looking for skewness in financial time series," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 12(2), pages 310-323, July.
    152. Dimitris Politis & Halbert White, 2004. "Automatic Block-Length Selection for the Dependent Bootstrap," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(1), pages 53-70.
    153. Gonzalez-Rivera, Gloria & Lee, Tae-Hwy & Mishra, Santosh, 2004. "Forecasting volatility: A reality check based on option pricing, utility function, value-at-risk, and predictive likelihood," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 629-645.
    154. Peter Hall & Qiwei Yao, 2003. "Inference in Arch and Garch Models with Heavy--Tailed Errors," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(1), pages 285-317, January.
    155. repec:adr:anecst:y:2000:i:60:p:10 is not listed on IDEAS
    156. Clive W. J. Granger, 2002. "Some comments on risk," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(5), pages 447-456.
    157. Christophe Perignon & Daniel R. Smith, 2010. "Diversification and Value-at-Risk," Post-Print hal-00528390, HAL.
    158. Christophe Pérignon & Zi Yin Deng & Zhi Jun Wang, 2008. "Do banks overstate their Value-at-Risk?," Post-Print hal-00461046, HAL.
    159. Marco Rocco, 2014. "Extreme Value Theory In Finance: A Survey," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(1), pages 82-108, February.
    160. James W. Taylor, 2008. "Estimating Value at Risk and Expected Shortfall Using Expectiles," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 6(2), pages 231-252, Spring.
    161. Helmut Herwartz & Israel Waichman, 2010. "A comparison of bootstrap and Monte-Carlo testing approaches to value-at-risk diagnosis," Computational Statistics, Springer, vol. 25(4), pages 725-732, December.
    162. Andrew J. Patton, 2006. "Modelling Asymmetric Exchange Rate Dependence," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 47(2), pages 527-556, May.
    163. Paul Embrechts, 2009. "Linear Correlation and EVT: Properties and Caveats," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 7(1), pages 30-39, Winter.
    164. Dias, Alexandra, 2013. "Market capitalization and Value-at-Risk," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 5248-5260.
    165. Herwartz, Helmut, 2009. "Exact inference in diagnosing Value-at-Risk estimates -- A Monte Carlo device," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 103(3), pages 160-162, June.
    166. Bao, Yong & Ullah, Aman, 2004. "Bias of a Value-at-Risk estimator," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 1(4), pages 241-249, December.
    167. J. Carlos Escanciano & Jose Olmo, 2011. "Robust Backtesting Tests for Value-at-risk Models," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 9(1), pages 132-161, Winter.
    168. Zhouping Li & Yun Gong & Liang Peng, 2011. "Empirical Likelihood Intervals for Conditional Value‐at‐Risk in Heteroscedastic Regression Models," Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, Danish Society for Theoretical Statistics;Finnish Statistical Society;Norwegian Statistical Association;Swedish Statistical Association, vol. 38(4), pages 781-787, December.
    169. Giovanni Barone-Adesi & Kostas Giannopoulos & Les Vosper, 2002. "Backtesting Derivative Portfolios with Filtered Historical Simulation (FHS)," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 8(1), pages 31-58.
    170. repec:hal:journl:peer-00732534 is not listed on IDEAS
    171. Susan Thomas & Mandira Sarma & Ajay Shah, 2003. "Selection of Value-at-Risk models," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(4), pages 337-358.
    172. Hartz, Christoph & Mittnik, Stefan & Paolella, Marc, 2006. "Accurate value-at-risk forecasting based on the normal-GARCH model," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 51(4), pages 2295-2312, December.
    173. Longin, Francois M., 2000. "From value at risk to stress testing: The extreme value approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(7), pages 1097-1130, July.
    174. Leccadito, Arturo & Boffelli, Simona & Urga, Giovanni, 2014. "Evaluating the accuracy of value-at-risk forecasts: New multilevel tests," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 206-216.
    175. Jianqing Fan & Juan Gu, 2003. "Semiparametric estimation of Value at Risk," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 6(2), pages 261-290, December.
    176. Adelchi Azzalini & Antonella Capitanio, 2003. "Distributions generated by perturbation of symmetry with emphasis on a multivariate skew "t"-distribution," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 65(2), pages 367-389.
    177. Debbie J. Dupuis & Nicolas Papageorgiou & Bruno Rémillard, 2015. "Robust Conditional Variance and Value-at-Risk Estimation," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 13(4), pages 896-921.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Gery Geenens & Richard Dunn, 2017. "A nonparametric copula approach to conditional Value-at-Risk," Papers 1712.05527, arXiv.org.
    2. Li, Leon, 2017. "Testing and comparing the performance of dynamic variance and correlation models in value-at-risk estimation," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 116-135.
    3. repec:eee:intfor:v:33:y:2017:i:4:p:848-863 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. repec:eee:intfor:v:33:y:2017:i:3:p:707-728 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. repec:eee:intfor:v:33:y:2017:i:4:p:958-969 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Polanski, Arnold & Stoja, Evarist, 2017. "Forecasting multidimensional tail risk at short and long horizons," Bank of England working papers 660, Bank of England.
    7. Gaglianone, Wagner Piazza & Marins, Jaqueline Terra Moura, 2017. "Evaluation of exchange rate point and density forecasts: An application to Brazil," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 707-728.
    8. F. Lilla, 2017. "High Frequency vs. Daily Resolution: the Economic Value of Forecasting Volatility Models - 2nd ed," Working Papers wp1099, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Backtesting; Extreme value theory; GARCH; Quantile; Risk;

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:intfor:v:32:y:2016:i:2:p:475-501. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ijforecast .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.