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Citations for "Central Bank Independence: An Update of Theory and Evidence"

by Berger, Helge & de Haan, Jakob & Eijffinger, Sylvester C W

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  1. Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov & Landström, Mats & Rudholm, Niklas, 2013. "Are Central Bank Independence Reforms Necessary for Achieving Low and Stable Inflation?," HUI Working Papers 95, HUI Research.
  2. Hasan , Iftekhar & Mester, Loretta, 2008. "Central bank institutional structure and effective central banking: cross-country empirical evidence," Research Discussion Papers 29/2008, Bank of Finland.
  3. Peter Howells, 2009. "Independent Central Banks: Some theoretical and empirical problems?," Working Papers 0908, Department of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Bristol Business School, University of the West of England, Bristol.
  4. Belke, Ansgar & Freytag, Andreas & Keil, Jonas & Schneider, Friedrich, 2014. "The credibility of monetary policy announcements: Empirical evidence for OECD countries since the 1960s," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 217-227.
  5. Eva Gutierrez, 2003. "Inflation Performance and Constitutional Central Bank Independence; Evidence From Latin America and the Caribbean," IMF Working Papers 03/53, International Monetary Fund.
  6. Down Ian, 2009. "Central Bank Independence, Disinflations and Monetary Policy," Business and Politics, De Gruyter, vol. 10(3), pages 1-22, January.
  7. Carsten Hefeker & Blandine Zimmer, 2011. "Central Bank Independence and Conservatism under Uncertainty: Substitutes or Complements?," CESifo Working Paper Series 3344, CESifo Group Munich.
  8. Huang, Haizhou & Wei, Shang-Jin, 2006. "Monetary policies for developing countries: The role of institutional quality," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 239-252, September.
  9. Andreas Freytag & Simon Renaud, 2007. "From short-term to long-term orientation—political economy of the policy reform process," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 17(4), pages 433-449, August.
  10. Bernard Laurens & Martin Sommer & Marco Arnone & Jean-François Segalotto, 2007. "Central Bank Autonomy; Lessons From Global Trends," IMF Working Papers 07/88, International Monetary Fund.
  11. Adolfo Meisel & Juan D.Barón, . "A Historical Analysis of Central Bank Independence in Latin America: The Colombian Experience, 1923-2008," Borradores de Economia 573, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  12. Haizhou Huang & Shang-Jin Wei, 2003. "Monetary Policies for Developing Countries: The Role of Corruption," NBER Working Papers 10093, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Carsten Hefeker & Helge Berger & Ronnie Schlöb, 2002. "Optimal Central Bank Conservatism and Monopoly Trade Unions," IMF Working Papers 02/44, International Monetary Fund.
  14. repec:onb:oenbwp:y::i:52:b:1 is not listed on IDEAS
  15. de Jong, Eelke, 2002. "Why are price stability and statutory independence of central banks negatively correlated? The role of culture," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 675-694, November.
  16. Giovanni Di Bartolomeo & Debora Di Gioacchino, 2005. "Fiscal-Monetary Policy Coordination And Debt Management: A Two Stage Dynamic Analysis," Macroeconomics 0504024, EconWPA.
  17. Nicoletta Batini & Joe Pearlman, 2002. "Too Much Too Soon: Instability and Indeterminacy with Forward-Looking Rules," Computing in Economics and Finance 2002 182, Society for Computational Economics.
  18. Axel Dreher & Jakob de Haan & Jan-Egbert Sturm, 2007. "Does High Inflation Cause Central Bankers to Lose their Job? Evidence Based on a New Data Set," CESifo Working Paper Series 2045, CESifo Group Munich.
  19. Krause, Stefan & Méndez, Fabio, 2008. "Institutions, arrangements and preferences for inflation stability: Evidence and lessons from a panel data analysis," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 282-307, March.
  20. Stern, Jon & Cubbin, John, 2005. "Regulatory effectiveness : the impact of regulation and regulatory governance arrangements on electricity industry outcomes," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3536, The World Bank.
  21. Otero, Jesus & Ramirez, Manuel, 2006. "Inflation before and after central bank independence: The case of Colombia," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 168-182, February.
  22. Bernd Hayo & Stefan Voigt, 2005. "Inflation, Central Bank Independence and the Legal System," Money Macro and Finance (MMF) Research Group Conference 2005 57, Money Macro and Finance Research Group.
  23. Uluc Aysun & Ryan Brady & Adam Honig, 2011. "Financial Frictions and the Credit Channel of Monetary Transmission," Working Papers 2011-03, University of Central Florida, Department of Economics.
  24. Philipp Maier & Eirc Santor, 2008. "Reforming the IMF: Lessons from Modern Central Banking," Discussion Papers 08-6, Bank of Canada.
  25. Jerger, Jürgen & Röhe, Oke, 2012. "Die Unabhängigkeit von Zentralbanken - Ökonomische Begründung, Messung und Zukunftsperspektive," University of Regensburg Working Papers in Business, Economics and Management Information Systems 464, University of Regensburg, Department of Economics.
  26. Matthias Neuenkirch, 2013. "Are Public Preferences Reflected in Monetary Policy Reaction Functions?," MAGKS Papers on Economics 201321, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Department of Economics (Volkswirtschaftliche Abteilung).
  27. Giordano, Raffaela & Tommasino, Pietro, 2011. "What determines debt intolerance? The role of political and monetary institutions," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 471-484, September.
  28. Zeaiter, Hussein Zeaiter, 2013. "Sovereign Debt Defaults: Evidence using Extreme bounds Analysis," Working Papers 32/2013, Universidade Portucalense, Centro de Investigação em Gestão e Economia (CIGE).
  29. JoAnne Morris & Tonny Lybek, 2004. "Central Bank Governance; A Survey of Boards and Management," IMF Working Papers 04/226, International Monetary Fund.
  30. Luis Ignacio Jácome & Francisco F. Vázquez, 2005. "Any Link Between Legal Central Bank Independence and Inflation? Evidence From Latin America and the Caribbean," IMF Working Papers 05/75, International Monetary Fund.
  31. Helge Berger & Carsten Hefeker, 2004. "One Country, One Vote? Labor Market Structure and Voting Rights in the ECB," CESifo Working Paper Series 1165, CESifo Group Munich.
  32. Andreas Freytag & Friedrich Schneider, 2007. "Monetary Commitment, Institutional Constraints and Inflation: Empirical Evidence for OECD Countries since the 1970s," CESifo Working Paper Series 2001, CESifo Group Munich.
  33. Andreas Freytag, 2004. "EMU Enlargement: Which Concept of Convergence to Apply?," Jenaer Schriften zur Wirtschaftswissenschaft 11/2004, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.
  34. de Haan, Jakob & Berger, Helge & van Fraassen, Erik, 2001. "How to reduce inflation: an independent central bank or a currency board? The experience of the Baltic countries," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 218-243, September.
  35. Lars P. Feld & Stefan Voigt, 2003. "Economic Growth and Judicial Independence: Cross Country Evidence Using a New Set of Indicators," CESifo Working Paper Series 906, CESifo Group Munich.
  36. Mike Artis, 2002. "The Performance of the European Central Bank," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(1), pages 19-29.
  37. Alexander Mihailov, 2005. "Has More Independence Affected Bank of England's Reaction Function under Inflation Targeting? Lessons from Taylor Rule Empirics," Economics Discussion Papers 601, University of Essex, Department of Economics.
  38. Berggren, Niclas & Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov & Hellström, Jörgen, 2012. "Social trust and central-bank independence," HUI Working Papers 66, HUI Research.
  39. Giovanni Di Bartolomeo & Enrico Marchetti, 2005. "Central banks and information provided to the private sector," Macroeconomics 0504025, EconWPA, revised 27 Apr 2005.
  40. Christoph Moser & Axel Dreher, 2007. "Do Markets Care About Central Bank Governor Changes? Evidence from Emerging Markets," KOF Working papers 07-177, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
  41. Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2003. "Globalization and global disinflation," Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pages 77-112.
  42. Helge Berger & Volker Nitsch, 2008. "Too Many Cooks? Committees in Monetary Policy," KOF Working papers 08-195, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
  43. Cristina Bodea, 2013. "Independent central banks, regime type, and fiscal performance: the case of post-communist countries," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 155(1), pages 81-107, April.
  44. Weymark, Diana N., 2007. "Inflation, government transfers, and optimal central bank independence," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 297-315, February.
  45. Harashima, Taiji, 2007. "Why should central banks be independent?," MPRA Paper 1838, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 19 Feb 2007.
  46. Hein, Eckhard, 2001. "Institutions and Macroeconomic Performance: Central Bank Independence, Labour Market Institutions and the Perspectives for Inflation and Employment in the European Monetary Union," MPRA Paper 18880, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  47. Stefan Voigt, 2011. "Positive constitutional economics II—a survey of recent developments," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 146(1), pages 205-256, January.
  48. Helder Ferreira de Mendonça & Manoel Carlos de Castro Pires, 2005. "Liberalização da Conta de Capitais e Inflação: A Experiência Brasileira no Período Pós-Real," Discussion Papers 1121, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA.
  49. Mark Mietzner & Dirk Schiereck, 2011. "Staatsfonds als Ankerinvestoren: Eine Note zum Einstieg von Aabar bei Daimler," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 12(1), pages 92-100, 02.
  50. Ferré Carracedo, Montserrat & García Fortuny, Judit & Manzano, Carolina, 2013. "The Conservativeness of the Central Bank when Institutional Quality is Poor," Working Papers 2072/222198, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
  51. Philipp Maier & Saskia Bezoen, 2002. "Central bank bashing: The case of the European Central Bank," MEB Series (discontinued) 2002-18, Netherlands Central Bank, Monetary and Economic Policy Department.
  52. Jan-Egbert Sturm & Helge Berger & Jakob de Haan, 2005. "Which Variables Explain Decisions On Imf Credit? An Extreme Bounds Analysis," Economics and Politics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17, pages 177-213, 07.
  53. Helmut Wagner & Wolfram Berger, 2003. "Financial Globalization and Monetary Policy," DNB Staff Reports (discontinued) 95, Netherlands Central Bank.
  54. Baltensperger, Ernst & Fischer, Andreas M & Jordan, Thomas J., 2006. "Strong Goal Independence and Inflation Targets," CEPR Discussion Papers 5915, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  55. Kenneth N. Kuttner, 2001. "Beyond Bipolar: A Three-Dimensional Assessment of Monetary Frameworks," Working Papers 52, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank).
  56. Helge Berger & Volker Nitsch & Tonny Lybek, 2007. "Central Bank Boards around the World: Why does Membership Size Differ?," CESifo Working Paper Series 1897, CESifo Group Munich.
  57. Kees Bouwman & Richard Jong-A-Pin & Jakob de Haan, 2005. "On the relationship between central bank independence and inflation: some more bad news," Applied Financial Economics Letters, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 1(6), pages 381-385, November.
  58. Katrin Ullrich, 2007. "Introducing Instruments of Central Bank Accountability in a Monetary Union," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 18(3), pages 239-262, July.
  59. Bernd Hayo, 2005. "Perspektiven einer Asiatischen Währungsunion," Marburg Working Papers on Economics 200508, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Department of Economics (Volkswirtschaftliche Abteilung).
  60. Adolfo Meisel & Juan D. Barón, 2010. "Un análisis histórico de la independencia de la banca central en América Latina: la experiencia colombiana, 1923-2008," CUADERNOS DE HISTORIA ECONÓMICA Y EMPRESARIAL 006406, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA - ECONOMÍA REGIONAL.
  61. Hielscher, Kai & Markwardt, Gunther, 2012. "The role of political institutions for the effectiveness of central bank independence," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 286-301.
  62. Helmut Wagner & Wolfram Berger, 2004. "Globalization, Financial Volatility and Monetary Policy," Empirica, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 163-184, June.
  63. Stern, J. & Cubbin, J., 2004. "Regulatory effectiveness: the impact of regulation and regulatory governance arrangements on electricity industry outcomes: a review paper," Working Papers 04/01, Department of Economics, City University London.
  64. Richard Mash, 2000. "The Time Inconsistency of Monetary Policy with Inflation Persistence," Economics Series Working Papers 15, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  65. Jácome, Luis I. & Vázquez, Francisco, 2008. "Is there any link between legal central bank independence and inflation? Evidence from Latin America and the Caribbean," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 788-801, December.
  66. Sayer, Stuart, 2000. " Issues in New Political Economy: An Overview," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(5), pages 513-26, December.
  67. Theodore Panagiotidis & Afrodit Triampella, 2005. "Central Bank Independence and Inflation: The case of Greece," Discussion Paper Series 2005_7, Department of Economics, Loughborough University, revised Jul 2005.
  68. Meseguer, Covadonga, 2006. "Learning and economic policy choices," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 156-178, March.
  69. Ullrich, Katrin, 2003. "Unabhängigkeit und Verantwortlichkeit der Europäischen Zentralbank," ZEW Discussion Papers 03-65, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  70. Piotr Stanek, 2004. "How to assess proposals for enlargement reform of the European Central Bank," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 91(5), pages 209-239.
  71. Cubbin, J. & Stern, J., 2004. "Regulatory effectiveness: the impact of good regulatory governance on electricity industry capacity and efficiency in developing countries," Working Papers 04/04, Department of Economics, City University London.
  72. C. Hueng, 2012. "Central Bank Behavior and Statutory Independence," Atlantic Economic Journal, International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 40(2), pages 111-126, June.
  73. Eckhard Hein, 2002. "Monetary policy and wage bargaining in the EMU: restrictive ECB policies, high unemployment, nominal wage restraint and inflation above the target," Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 55(222), pages 299-337.
  74. Jakob Haan & Sander Oosterloo, 2006. "Transparency and accountability of central banks in their role of financial stability supervisor in OECD countries," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 22(3), pages 255-271, November.
  75. Helge Berger & Jan-Egbert Sturm & Jakob de Haan, 2000. "An Empirical Investigation into Exchange Rate Regime Choice and Exchange Rate Volatility," CESifo Working Paper Series 263, CESifo Group Munich.
  76. Berger, Helge, 2005. "Optimal central bank design: benchmarks for the ECB," Discussion Papers 2005/27, Free University Berlin, School of Business & Economics.
  77. Marc Quintyn, 2009. "Independent agencies: more than a cheap copy of independent central banks?," Constitutional Political Economy, Springer, vol. 20(3), pages 267-295, September.
  78. Jan-Egbert Sturm & Jakob de Haan, 2001. "Inflation in Developing Countries: Does Central Bank Independence Matter?," CESifo Working Paper Series 511, CESifo Group Munich.
  79. Stefan Krause & Felix Rioja, 2006. "Financial Development and Monetary Policy Efficiency," Emory Economics 0613, Department of Economics, Emory University (Atlanta).
  80. Farvaque, Etienne, 2002. "Political determinants of central bank independence," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 131-135, September.
  81. Christopher W. Crowe & Ellen E. Meade, 2008. "Central Bank Independence and Transparency; Evolution and Effectiveness," IMF Working Papers 08/119, International Monetary Fund.
  82. Levieuge, Grégory & Lucotte, Yannick, 2012. "A simple empirical measure of central banks' conservatism," MPRA Paper 38424, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  83. Grüner, Hans Peter, 2010. "Why EMU is not a failure," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 1-11, March.
  84. Ferré Carracedo, Montserrat & Manzano, Carolina, 2011. "Designing the Optimal Conservativeness of the Central Bank," Working Papers 2072/179623, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
  85. Ari Aisen & Francisco Veiga, 2008. "Political instability and inflation volatility," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 135(3), pages 207-223, June.
  86. Andreas Freytag, 2001. "Does central bank independence reflect monetary commitment properly? Methodical considerations," Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 54(217), pages 181-208.
  87. Alicia García Herrero & Pedro del Río, 2003. "Financial stability and the design of monetary policy," Banco de Espa�a Working Papers 0315, Banco de Espa�a.
  88. Xavier Debrun, 2011. "Democratic Accountability, Deficit Bias, and Independent Fiscal Agencies," IMF Working Papers 11/173, International Monetary Fund.
  89. Stefan Voigt & Jerg Gutmann & Lars P. Feld, 2014. "Economic Growth and Judicial Independence, a Dozen Years On: Cross-Country Evidence Using an Updated Set of Indicators," CESifo Working Paper Series 5010, CESifo Group Munich.
  90. Posso, Alberto & Tawadros, George B., 2013. "Does greater central bank independence really lead to lower inflation? Evidence from panel data," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 244-247.
  91. Dreher, Axel & Sturm, Jan-Egbert & Haan, Jakob de, 2010. "When is a central bank governor replaced? Evidence based on a new data set," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 766-781, September.
  92. Aleksandra Maslowska, 2009. "Using Taylor Rule to Explain Effects of Institutional Changes in Central Banks," Discussion Papers 46, Aboa Centre for Economics.
  93. Manfred Gärtner, 2006. "The political economy of monetary policy conduct and central bank design," University of St. Gallen Department of Economics working paper series 2006 2006-25, Department of Economics, University of St. Gallen.
  94. Ulrich van Suntum & Jens Oelgemöller & Cordelius Ilgmann & Tobias Böhm, . "Walter Eucken`s Principles of Economic Policy Today," Working Papers 201175, Institute of Spatial and Housing Economics, Munster Universitary.
  95. Andrew Swiston & Florencia Frantischek & Przemek Gajdeczka & Alexander Herman, 2014. "Central Bank Financial Strength in Central America and the Dominican Republic," IMF Working Papers 14/87, International Monetary Fund.
  96. Erik Leertouwer & Jakob de Haan, 2002. "How to Use Indicators for 'Corporatism' in Empirical Applications," CESifo Working Paper Series 728, CESifo Group Munich.
  97. Maier, Philipp & Knaap, Thijs, 2002. "Who supported the Deutsche Bundesbank?: An empirical investigation," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 24(9), pages 831-851, December.
  98. Bartsch, Klaus & Hein, Eckhard & Truger, Achim, 2001. "Zur Interdependenz von Geld- und Lohnpolitik: Makroökonometrische Ex-post und Ex-ante Simulationen verschiedener Szenarien für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland
    [On the interdependence of monetary and
    ," MPRA Paper 18715, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  99. Eijffinger, S.C.W., 2005. "The new EU member states : Trading off exchange rate stability and price stability," Other publications TiSEM 90606467-67d6-4896-b82e-5, School of Economics and Management.
  100. Hayo, Bernd & Hefeker, Carsten, 2002. "Reconsidering central bank independence," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 653-674, November.
  101. Lilia Cavallari, 2001. "Macroeconomic Performance and Wage Bargaining in a Monetary Union," Empirica, Springer, vol. 28(4), pages 419-433, December.
  102. Perino, Grischa, 2010. "How delegation improves commitment," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 106(2), pages 137-139, February.
  103. Harashima, Taiji, 2008. "A Microfounded Mechanism of Observed Substantial Inflation Persistence," MPRA Paper 10668, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  104. Gaganis, Chrysovalantis & Pasiouras, Fotios, 2013. "Financial supervision regimes and bank efficiency: International evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 5463-5475.
  105. Harashima, Taiji, 2007. "Hyperinflation, disinflation, deflation, etc.: A unified and micro-founded explanation for inflation," MPRA Paper 3836, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  106. Masciandaro, Donato & Quintyn, Marc & Taylor, Michael W., 2008. "Inside and outside the central bank: Independence and accountability in financial supervision: Trends and determinants," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 833-848, December.
  107. Giovanni Di Bartolomeo & Debora Di Gioacchino, 2008. "Fiscal-monetary policy coordination and debt management: a two-stage analysis," Empirica, Springer, vol. 35(4), pages 433-448, September.
  108. Yifan Hu, 2006. "The choice of inflation targeting—an empirical investigation," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 3(1), pages 27-42, April.
  109. Bernd Hayo & Carsten Hefeker, 2001. "Do We Really Need Central Bank Independence? A Critical Re- examination," Macroeconomics 0103006, EconWPA.
  110. Yifan Hu, 2003. "Empirical Investigations of Inflation Targeting," Working Paper Series WP03-6, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
  111. Kogut, Bruce & Macpherson, J. Muir, 2011. "The mobility of economists and the diffusion of policy ideas: The influence of economics on national policies," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(10), pages 1307-1320.
  112. Jens Klose, 2012. "Political business cycles and monetary policy revisited–an application of a two-dimensional asymmetric Taylor reaction function," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 265-295, September.
  113. Jordahl, Henrik & Laseen, Stefan, 2005. "Central bank conservatism and labor market regulation," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 345-363, June.
  114. Adam S. Posen, 2002. "Does it pay to be transparent? international evidence form central bank forecasts - commentary," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jul, pages 119-126.
  115. Adam Geršl, 2006. "Political Pressure on Central Banks: The Case of the Czech National Bank (in English)," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 56(1-2), pages 18-39, January.
  116. Reiner Eichenberger & Mark Schelker, 2007. "Independent and competing agencies: An effective way to control government," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 130(1), pages 79-98, January.
  117. Maier, Philipp & Bezoen, Saskia, 2004. "Bashing and supporting central banks: the Bundesbank and the European Central Bank," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 923-939, November.
  118. Henry Ergas, 2008. "Should Australia Encourage Developing Countries to Adopt Competition Laws?," Asia Pacific Economic Papers 376, Australia-Japan Research Centre, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
  119. Peter Bernholz, 2002. "Advantages and Disadvantages of the Holding of Gold Reserves by Central Banks - With Special Reference to the Swiss National Bank," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 138(II), pages 99-113, June.
  120. Sandra Waller & Jakob de Haan, 2004. "Credibility and Transparency of Central Banks: New Results Based on Ifo’s World Economicy Survey," CESifo Working Paper Series 1199, CESifo Group Munich.
  121. Schwäbe, Carsten, 2013. "Unkonventionelle Geldpolitik: Warum die Europäische Zentralbank ihre Unabhängigkeit nicht verloren hat," CIW Discussion Papers 3/2013, University of Münster, Center for Interdisciplinary Economics (CIW).
  122. Hefeker, Carsten & Zimmer, Blandine, 2011. "The optimal choice of central bank independence and conservatism under uncertainty," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 595-606.
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