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Recent Developments in the Theory of Regulation

Listed author(s):
  • Armstrong, Mark
  • Sappington, David E.M.

This chapter reviews recent theoretical work on the design of regulatory policy, focusing on the complications that arise when regulated suppliers have better information about the regulated industry than do regulators. The discussion begins by characterizing the optimal regulation of a monopoly supplier that is better informed than the regulator about its production cost and/or consumer demand for its product. Both adverse selection ("hidden information") and moral hazard ("hidden action") complications are considered, as are the additional concerns that arise when the regulator's intertemporal commitment powers are limited. The chapter then analyzes the design of practical policies, such as price cap regulation, that are often observed in practice. The design of regulatory policy in the presence of limited competitive forces also is reviewed. Yardstick regulation, procedures for awarding monopoly franchises, and optimal industry structuring are analyzed. The chapter also analyzes the optimal pricing of access to bottleneck production facilities in vertically-related industries, stressing the complications that arise when the owner of the bottleneck facility also operates as a retail producer.

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This chapter was published in:
  • Mark Armstrong & Robert Porter (ed.), 2007. "Handbook of Industrial Organization," Handbook of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, edition 1, volume 3, number 1.
  • This item is provided by Elsevier in its series Handbook of Industrial Organization with number 3-27.
    Handle: RePEc:eee:indchp:3-27
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    144. Sappington, David E M & Sibley, David S, 1993. "Regulatory Incentive Policies and Abuse," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 5(2), pages 131-141, June.
    145. Xavier Freixas & Roger Guesnerie & Jean Tirole, 1985. "Planning under Incomplete Information and the Ratchet Effect," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 52(2), pages 173-191.
    146. Kridel, Donald J & Sappington, David E M & Weisman, Dennis L, 1996. "The Effects of Incentive Regulation in the Telecommunications Industry: A Survey," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 269-306, May.
    147. Tracy R. Lewis & Huseyin Yildirim, 2002. "Learning by Doing and Dynamic Regulation," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 33(1), pages 22-36, Spring.
    148. Mark Armstrong, 2000. "Optimal Multi-Object Auctions," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 67(3), pages 455-481.
    149. Loeb, Martin & Magat, Wesley A, 1979. "A Decentralized Method for Utility Regulation," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 22(2), pages 399-404, October.
    150. Uri Ronnen, 1991. "Minimum Quality Standards, Fixed Costs, and Competition," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 22(4), pages 490-504, Winter.
    151. Armstrong, Mark & Vickers, John, 2000. "Multiproduct Price Regulation under Asymmetric Information," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(2), pages 137-160, June.
    152. Che, Yeon-Koo & Gale, Ian, 2000. "The Optimal Mechanism for Selling to a Budget-Constrained Buyer," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 92(2), pages 198-233, June.
    153. David P. Baron & David Besanko, 1987. "Commitment and Fairness in a Dynamic Regulatory Relationship," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 54(3), pages 413-436.
    154. Arghya Ghosh & Hodaka Morita, 2007. "Free entry and social efficiency under vertical oligopoly," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 38(2), pages 541-554, 06.
    155. Riordan, Michael H. & Sappington, David E. M., 1988. "Optimal contracts with public ex post information," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 189-199, June.
    156. Bernstein, Jeffrey I & Sappington, David E M, 1999. "Setting the X Factor in Price-Cap Regulation Plans," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 16(1), pages 5-25, July.
    157. Brennan, Timothy J, 1990. "Cross-Subsidization and Cost Misallocation by Regulated Monopolists," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 2(1), pages 37-51, March.
    158. Arijit Sen, 1996. "Termination Clauses in Long-Term Contracts," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(4), pages 473-496, December.
    159. Beard, T Randolph & Kaserman, David L & Mayo, John W, 2001. "Regulation, Vertical Integration and Sabotage," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(3), pages 319-333, September.
    160. Laffont, Jean-Jacques & Tirole, Jean, 1991. "Privatization and Incentives," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(0), pages 84-105, Special I.
    161. David P. Baron & David Besanko, 1984. "Regulation, Asymmetric Information, and Auditing," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 15(4), pages 447-470, Winter.
    162. Braeutigam, Ronald R, 1979. "Optimal Pricing with Intermodal Competition," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(1), pages 38-49, March.
    163. Kevin Currier, 2005. "Strategic Firm Behavior Under Average-Revenue-Lagged Regulation," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 67-79, September.
    164. Ma, C.A., 1991. "Renegotiation and Optimality in Agency Contracts," Papers 29, Stanford - Institute for Thoretical Economics.
    165. Dennis Weisman & Michael Williams, 2001. "The Costs and Benefits of Long-Distance Entry: Regulation and Non-Price Discrimination," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 18(3), pages 275-282, May.
    166. David Besanko & Daniel F. Spulber, 1992. "Sequential-Equilibrium Investment by Regulated Firms," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 23(2), pages 153-170, Summer.
    167. Mark Armstrong & David Sappington, 2005. "Regulation, Competition and Liberalization," Industrial Organization 0505011, EconWPA, revised 07 Oct 2005.
    168. Laffont, Jean-Jacques & Rochet, Jean-Charles, 1998. "Regulation of a Risk Averse Firm," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 149-173, November.
    169. Laffont, Jean-Jacques & Tirole, Jean, 1990. "The Politics of Government Decision Making: Regulatory Institutions," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 6(1), pages 1-31, Spring.
    170. Rey, Patrick & Salanie, Bernard, 1996. "On the Value of Commitment with Asymmetric Information," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(6), pages 1395-1414, November.
    171. Crew, Michael A & Kleindorfer, Paul R, 2002. "Regulatory Economics: Twenty Years of Progress?," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 5-22, January.
    172. R. Preston McAfee, 2002. "Coarse Matching," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(5), pages 2025-2034, September.
    173. Lee, Sang-Ho, 1997. "A Note on Regulating a Multiproduct Monopolist," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 12(3), pages 311-317, November.
    174. Iossa, Elisabetta & Stroffolini, Francesca, 2002. "Price cap regulation and information acquisition," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 20(7), pages 1013-1036, September.
    175. Ingo Vogelsang & Jorg Finsinger, 1979. "A Regulatory Adjustment Process for Optimal Pricing by Multiproduct Monopoly Firms," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 10(1), pages 157-171, Spring.
    176. Steven Matthews, "undated". "Renegotiating Moral Hazard Contracts Under Limited Liability and Monotonicity," CARESS Working Papres 99-04, University of Pennsylvania Center for Analytic Research and Economics in the Social Sciences.
    177. Caillaud, Bernard, 1990. "Regulation, competition, and asymmetric information," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 87-110, October.
    178. Guesnerie, Roger & Laffont, Jean-Jacques, 1984. "A complete solution to a class of principal-agent problems with an application to the control of a self-managed firm," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 329-369, December.
    179. Yeon-Koo Che & Ian Gale, 1998. "Standard Auctions with Financially Constrained Bidders," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 65(1), pages 1-21.
    180. Flores, Daniel, 2005. "Price cap regulation in the Mexican telephone industry," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 231-246, March.
    181. Reiffen, David & Schumann, Laurence & Ward, Michael R, 2000. "Discriminatory Dealing with Downstream Competitors: Evidence from the Cellular Industry," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(3), pages 253-286, September.
    182. Tracy R. Lewis & David E.M. Sappington, 1989. "Regulatory Options and Price-Cap Regulation," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 20(3), pages 405-416, Autumn.
    183. Bower, Anthony G, 1993. "Procurement Policy and Contracting Efficiency," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 34(4), pages 873-901, November.
    184. David Sappington, 1980. "Strategic Firm Behavior under a Dynamic Regulatory Adjustment Process," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 11(1), pages 360-372, Spring.
    185. Lewis, Tracy R & Sappington, David E M, 1992. "Incentives for Conservation and Quality-Improvement by Public Utilities," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(5), pages 1321-1340, December.
    186. James Hagerman, 1990. "Regulation by Price Adjustment," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 21(1), pages 72-82, Spring.
    187. David P. Baron, 1988. "Regulation and Legislative Choice," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 19(3), pages 467-477, Autumn.
    188. Ingo Vogelsang, 2003. "Price Regulation of Access to Telecommunications Networks," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 41(3), pages 830-862, September.
    189. Oliver Hart & Andrei Shleifer & Robert Vishny, 1996. "The Proper Scope of Government: Theory and an Application to Prisons," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1778, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
    190. Dana Jr. James D., 1993. "The Organization and Scope of Agents: Regulating Multiproduct Industries," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 288-310, April.
    191. Richard Schmalensee, 1989. "Good Regulatory Regimes," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 20(3), pages 417-436, Autumn.
    192. Richard J. Gilbert & Michael H. Riordan, 1995. "Regulating Complementary Products: A Comparative Institutional Analysis," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 26(2), pages 243-256, Summer.
    193. John McMillan, 1994. "Selling Spectrum Rights," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 8(3), pages 145-162, Summer.
    194. Alejandro M. Manelli & Daniel R. Vincent, 1992. "Optimal Procurement Mechanisms," Discussion Papers 999, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
    195. Cremer, Jacques & McLean, Richard P, 1985. "Optimal Selling Strategies under Uncertainty for a Discriminating Monopolist When Demands Are Interdependent," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(2), pages 345-361, March.
    196. Otsuka, Yasuji, 1997. "A Welfare Analysis of Local Franchise and Other Types of Regulation: Evidence from the Cable TV Industry," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 11(2), pages 157-180, March.
    197. Demski, Joel S. & Sappington, David E. M. & Spiller, Pablo T., 1988. "Incentive schemes with multiple agents and bankruptcy constraints," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 156-167, February.
    198. Rogerson, William P, 1985. "Repeated Moral Hazard," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(1), pages 69-76, January.
    199. Diamond, Peter A & Mirrlees, James A, 1971. "Optimal Taxation and Public Production II: Tax Rules," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 61(3), pages 261-278, June.
    200. Sappington, David E M & Sibley, David S, 1990. "Regulating without Cost Information: Further Observations," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 31(4), pages 1027-1029, November.
    201. Vogelsang, Ingo, 2002. "Incentive Regulation and Competition in Public Utility Markets: A 20-Year Perspective," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 22(1), pages 5-27, July.
    202. Ramakrishnan, Ram T S & Thakor, Anjan V, 1991. "Cooperation versus Competition in Agency," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(2), pages 248-283, Fall.
    203. John Vickers, 1995. "Competition and Regulation in Vertically Related Markets," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 62(1), pages 1-17.
    204. Laffont, Jean-Jacques & Tirole, Jean, 1988. "The Dynamics of Incentive Contracts," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(5), pages 1153-1175, September.
    205. Lewis, Tracy R. & Sappington, David E. M., 1999. "Access pricing with unregulated downstream competition," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 73-100, March.
    206. Clemenz, Gerhard, 1991. "Optimal Price-Cap Regulation," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(4), pages 391-408, June.
    207. Mussa, Michael & Rosen, Sherwin, 1978. "Monopoly and product quality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 301-317, August.
    208. David Sappington, 1996. "Designing Incentive Regulation for the Telecommunications Industry," Books, American Enterprise Institute, number 52863, Winter.
    209. Bester, Helmut & Strausz, Roland, 2001. "Contracting with Imperfect Commitment and the Revelation Principle: The Single Agent Case," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(4), pages 1077-1098, July.
    210. Michael H. Riordan & David E.M. Sappington, 1989. "Second Sourcing," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 20(1), pages 41-58, Spring.
    211. Dilip Mookherjee, 1984. "Optimal Incentive Schemes with Many Agents," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(3), pages 433-446.
    212. Maggi G. & Rodriguez-Clare A., 1995. "On Countervailing Incentives," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 238-263, June.
    213. Nicolas Curien & Bruno Jullien & Patrick Rey, 1998. "Pricing Regulation Under Bypass Competition," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 29(2), pages 259-279, Summer.
    214. Reiffen, David, 1998. "A Regulated Firm's Incentive to Discriminate: A Reevaluation and Extension of Weisman's Result," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 79-86, July.
    215. Cowan, Simon, 2004. "Optimal risk allocation for regulated monopolies and consumers," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(1-2), pages 285-303, January.
    216. Diamond, Peter A & Mirrlees, James A, 1971. "Optimal Taxation and Public Production: I--Production Efficiency," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 61(1), pages 8-27, March.
    217. David Sibley, 1989. "Asymmetric Information, Incentives and Price-Cap Regulation," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 20(3), pages 392-404, Autumn.
    218. Joel S. Demski & David E.M. Sappington, 1987. "Hierarchical Regulatory Control," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 18(3), pages 369-383, Autumn.
    219. Jullien, Bruno, 2000. "Participation Constraints in Adverse Selection Models," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 93(1), pages 1-47, July.
    220. Berg, Sanford V. & Lynch Jr, John G., 1992. "The measurement and encouragement of telephone service quality," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 210-224, April.
    221. Michael A. Einhorn, 1987. "Optimality and Sustainability: Regulation and Intermodal Competition in Telecommunications," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 18(4), pages 550-563, Winter.
    222. Guthrie, Graeme, 2006. "Regulating Infrastructure: The Impact on Risk and Investment," Working Paper Series 3851, Victoria University of Wellington, The New Zealand Institute for the Study of Competition and Regulation.
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    224. James J. Anton & Dennis A. Yao, 1992. "Coordination in Split Award Auctions," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 681-707.
    225. James J. Anton & Dennis A. Yao, 1989. "Split Awards, Procurement, and Innovation," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 20(4), pages 538-552, Winter.
    226. Besanko, David & Donnenfeld, Shabtai & White, Lawrence J, 1988. "The Multiproduct Firm, Quality Choice, and Regulation," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(4), pages 411-429, June.
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    229. Kang, Jaesung & Weisman, Dennis L. & Zhang, Mingyuan, 2000. "Do consumers benefit from tighter price cap regulation?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 113-119, April.
    230. Mark Armstrong & Simon Cowan & John Vickers, 1994. "Regulatory Reform: Economic Analysis and British Experience," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262510790.
    231. Cabral, Luis M B & Riordan, Michael H, 1989. "Incentives for Cost Reduction under Price Cap Regulation," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 1(2), pages 93-102, June.
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    236. Bourreau, Marc & Dogan, Pinar, 2001. "Regulation and innovation in the telecommunications industry," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 167-184, April.
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    239. Laffont, Jean-Jacques & Tirole, Jean, 1990. "Optimal Bypass and Cream Skimming," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(5), pages 1042-1061, December.
    240. Sappington, David E. M., 2003. "Regulating horizontal diversification," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 291-315, March.
    241. Barry J. Nalebuff & Joseph E. Stiglitz, 1983. "Prices and Incentives: Towards a General Theory of Compensation and Competition," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 14(1), pages 21-43, Spring.
    242. David E. M Sappington, 2005. "On the Irrelevance of Input Prices for Make-or-Buy Decisions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(5), pages 1631-1638, December.
    243. Russell Cooper, 1984. "On Allocative Distortions in Problems of Self-Selection," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 15(4), pages 568-577, Winter.
    244. Spiller, Pablo T, 1990. "Politicians, Interest Groups, and Regulators: A Multiple-Principals Agency Theory of Regulation, or "Let Them Be Bribed."," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(1), pages 65-101, April.
    245. John G. Lynch & Thomas E. Buzas & Sanford V. Berg, 1994. "Regulatory Measurement and Evaluation of Telephone Service Quality," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 40(2), pages 169-194, February.
    246. Tirole, Jean, 1986. "Hierarchies and Bureaucracies: On the Role of Collusion in Organizations," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 2(2), pages 181-214, Fall.
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    248. Richard L. Fullerton & R. Preston McAfee, 1999. "Auctioning Entry into Tournaments," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(3), pages 573-605, June.
    249. David E. M. Sappington & Tracy R. Lewis, 2000. "Motivating Wealth-Constrained Actors," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(4), pages 944-960, September.
    250. Leon Yang Chu & David E. M. Sappington, 2007. "Simple Cost-Sharing Contracts," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(1), pages 419-428, March.
    251. John E. Kwoka, 1993. "Implementing price cops in telecommunications," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(4), pages 726-752.
    252. Lewis, Tracy R & Sappington, David E M, 1997. "Information Management in Incentive Problems," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(4), pages 796-821, August.
    253. Martimort, David, 1999. "Renegotiation Design with Multiple Regulators," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 88(2), pages 261-293, October.
    254. Palmer, Karen, 1991. "Diversification by Regulated Monopolies and Incentives for Cost-Reducing R&D," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(2), pages 266-270, May.
    255. Vickers, John, 1995. "Concepts of Competition," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(1), pages 1-23, January.
    256. Riordan, Michael H, 1996. "Contracting with Qualified Suppliers," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 37(1), pages 115-128, February.
    257. Anton, James J. & Gertler, Paul J., 1988. "External markets and regulation," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 243-260, November.
    258. Bruno Biais & Enrico Perotti, 2002. "Machiavellian Privatization," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(1), pages 240-258, March.
    259. Prager, Robin A, 1989. "Franchise Bidding for Natural Monopoly: The Case of Cable Television in Massachusetts," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 1(2), pages 115-131, June.
    260. Stole, Lars A., 1994. "Information expropriation and moral hazard in optimal second-source auctions," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 463-484, July.
    261. William P. Rogerson, 2003. "Simple Menus of Contracts in Cost-Based Procurement and Regulation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(3), pages 919-926, June.
    262. Dale Lehman & Dennis Weisman, 2000. "The Political Economy of Price Cap Regulation," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 16(4), pages 343-356, June.
    263. Vogelsang, Ingo, 1990. "Optional two-part tariffs constrained by price caps," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 287-292, July.
    264. Neu, Werner, 1993. "Allocative Inefficiency Properties of Price-Cap Regulation," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 5(2), pages 159-182, June.
    265. Thomas G. McGuire & Michael H. Riordan, 1991. "Incomplete Information and Optimal Market Structure: Public Purchases from Private Providers," Papers 0010, Boston University - Industry Studies Programme.
    266. Schwermer, Sylvia, 1994. "Regulating Oligopolistic Industries: A Generalized Incentive Scheme," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 6(1), pages 97-108, February.
    267. Mandy, David M, 2002. "TELRIC Pricing with Vintage Capital," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 22(3), pages 215-249, November.
    268. Anton, James J. & Vander Weide, James H. & Vettas, Nikolaos, 2002. "Entry auctions and strategic behavior under cross-market price constraints," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 611-629, May.
    269. Riordan, Michael H & Sappington, David E M, 1987. "Awarding Monopoly Franchises," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(3), pages 375-387, June.
    270. Armstrong, Mark, 1998. "Network Interconnection in Telecommunications," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(448), pages 545-564, May.
    271. Rob, Rafael, 1986. "The Design of Procurement Contracts," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(3), pages 378-389, June.
    272. Tracy R. Lewis & David E.M. Sappington, 1991. "Incentives for Monitoring Quality," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 22(3), pages 370-384, Autumn.
    273. Eckel, Catherine & Lutz, Nancy, 2003. "Introduction: What Role Can Experiments Play in Research on Regulation?," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 23(2), pages 103-107, March.
    274. Milgrom, Paul, 1998. "Game theory and the spectrum auctions," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(3-5), pages 771-778, May.
    275. Jean-Jacques Laffont & David Martimort, 1997. "Collusion under Asymmetric Information," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(4), pages 875-912, July.
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    277. Armstrong, Mark & Rochet, Jean-Charles, 1999. "Multi-dimensional screening:: A user's guide," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(4-6), pages 959-979, April.
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    282. Lee, Sang-Ho, 1997. "A Note on Regulating Oligopolistic Industries: A Hierarchical Model," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 91-97, July.
    283. Joel S. Demski & David E.M. Sappington & Pablo T. Spiller, 1987. "Managing Supplier Switching," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 18(1), pages 77-97, Spring.
    284. J. Gregory Sidak & William Baumol, 1994. "Toward Competition in Local Telephony," Books, American Enterprise Institute, number 52984, Winter.
    285. Armstrong, Mark, 2004. "Network interconnection with asymmetric networks and heterogeneous calling patterns," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 375-390, September.
    286. Dalen, Dag Morten, 1997. "Regulation of Quality and the Ratchet Effect: Does Unverifiability Hurt the Regulator?," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 11(2), pages 139-155, March.
    287. Jaehong Kim, 1997. "Inefficiency of the Subgame Optimal Entry Regulation," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 28(1), pages 25-36, Spring.
    288. Bruce C. Greenwald, 1984. "Rate Base Selection and the Structure of Regulation," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 15(1), pages 85-95, Spring.
    289. Weisman, Dennis L, 1995. "Regulation and the Vertically Integrated Firm: The Case of RBOC Entry into Interlata Long Distance," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 8(3), pages 249-266, November.
    290. Iossa, Elisabetta & Stroffolini, Francesca, 2005. "Price cap regulation, revenue sharing and information acquisition," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 217-230, March.
    291. Oliver E. Williamson, 1976. "Franchise Bidding for Natural Monopolies -- in General and with Respect to CATV," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 7(1), pages 73-104, Spring.
    292. Baron, David P & Besanko, David, 1992. "Information, Control, and Organizational Structure," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 1(2), pages 237-275, Summer.
    293. Ellen M. Pint, 1992. "Price-Cap versus Rate-of-Return Regulation in a Stochastic-Cost Model," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 23(4), pages 564-578, Winter.
    294. Stefos, Theodore, 1990. "Regulating without Cost Information: A Comment," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 31(4), pages 1021-1025, November.
    295. Mark Armstrong & John Vickers, 1991. "Welfare Effects of Price Discrimination by a Regulated Monopolist," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 22(4), pages 571-581, Winter.
    296. Liston, Catherine, 1993. "Price-Cap versus Rate-of-Return Regulation," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 25-48, March.
    297. Paul Levine & John Stern & Francesc Trillas, 2005. "Utility price regulation and time inconsistency: comparisons with monetary policy," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 57(3), pages 447-478, July.
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