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Optimal Bypass and Cream Skimming

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  • Laffont, Jean-Jacques
  • Tirole, Jean

Abstract

This paper develops a normative model of regulatory policy toward bypass and cream skimming. It analyzes the effects of bypass on second-degree price discrimination, on the rent of the regulated firm, and on the welfare of low-demand customers. It shows that pricing under marginal cost may be optimal for the regulated firm, excessive cream skimming occurs if access to the bypass technology is not regulated, and the prohibition of bypass may increase or decrease the regulated firm's rent. Copyright 1990 by American Economic Association.

Suggested Citation

  • Laffont, Jean-Jacques & Tirole, Jean, 1990. "Optimal Bypass and Cream Skimming," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(5), pages 1042-1061, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:aea:aecrev:v:80:y:1990:i:5:p:1042-61
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    Cited by:

    1. Kerschbamer, Rudolf & Maderner, Nina, 1998. "Are Two a Good Representative for Many?," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 83(1), pages 90-104, November.
    2. Joan Calzada, 2006. "Worksharing and Access Discounts in the Postal Sector with Asymmetric Information," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 69-102, January.
    3. Jullien, Bruno, 2000. "Participation Constraints in Adverse Selection Models," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 93(1), pages 1-47, July.
    4. Sujit Chakravorti & Jeffery W. Gunther & Robert R. Moore, 2005. "Universal access, cost recovery, and payment services," Working Paper Series WP-05-21, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    5. Vislie,J., 2001. "Environmental regulation, asymmetric information and foreign ownership," Memorandum 07/2001, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
    6. Alderighi, Marco & Piga, Claudio A., 2008. "Why should a firm choose to limit the size of its market area?," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 191-201, March.
    7. Cremer, Helmuth & Gahvari, Firouz, 2013. "Atkinson-Stiglitz and Ramsey reconciled: Pareto efficient taxation and pricing under a break-even constraint," IDEI Working Papers 780, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
    8. Nathaniel Wilcox, 2004. "Believing in Economic Theory: Sex, Lies, Evidence, Trust and Ideology," Working Papers 2004-06 Classification-, Department of Economics, University of Houston.
    9. Lewis, Tracy R. & Sappington, David E. M., 1999. "Access pricing with unregulated downstream competition," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 73-100, March.
    10. Drew Fudenberg, 2015. "Tirole's Industrial Regulation and Organization Legacy in Economics," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 117(3), pages 771-800, July.
    11. Meng, Dawen & Tian, Guoqiang, 2008. "Nonlinear Pricing with Network Externalities and Countervailing Incentives," MPRA Paper 41212, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Aug 2008.
    12. Committee, Nobel Prize, 2014. "Market power and regulation (scientific background)," Nobel Prize in Economics documents 2014-2, Nobel Prize Committee.
    13. Opp, Christian C. & Opp, Marcus M. & Harris, Milton, 2013. "Rating agencies in the face of regulation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 46-61.
    14. McMillan, Robert, 2005. "Erratum to "Competition, incentives, and public school productivity"," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(5-6), pages 1133-1154, June.
    15. De Fraja, Gianni, 1999. "Regulation and access pricing with asymmetric information," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 109-134, January.
    16. Pio Baake & Ulrich Kamecke, 2006. "New Networks, Competition and Regulation," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 568, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    17. Vislie,J., 2000. "Environmental regulation under asymmetric information with type-dependent outside option," Memorandum 18/2000, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
    18. Marco Alderighi, 2006. "Why Should a Firm Choose to Limit the Size of Its Market Area?," ERSA conference papers ersa06p900, European Regional Science Association.
    19. Armstrong, Mark & Sappington, David E.M., 2007. "Recent Developments in the Theory of Regulation," Handbook of Industrial Organization, Elsevier.
    20. Lee, Sang-Kyu & Kim, Jae-Cheol, 1996. "An incentive scheme of a non-linear price schedule for regulating a monopolist with unknown cost," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 271-278, February.
    21. McMillan, Robert, 2004. "Competition, incentives, and public school productivity," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(9-10), pages 1871-1892, August.

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