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Sender or Receiver: Who Should Pay to Exchange an Electronic Message?

Author

Listed:
  • Benjamin E. Hermalin

    () (University of California, Berkeley)

  • Michael L. Katz

    () (University of California, Berkeley)

Abstract

We examine the pricing implications of call externalities, the benefits enjoyed by the recipient of a message sent by another user. We show that, with or without a network-profitability constraint, efficient pricing requires consideration of demands, as well as costs. We present conditions under which equal charges for sending and receiving calls maximize welfare and profits. We also present conditions under which the receiving party's subsidizing the sender maximizes welfare and profits. Last, we show that menus of pricing options can increase welfare and profits. None of these findings holds in the absence of call externalities.

Suggested Citation

  • Benjamin E. Hermalin & Michael L. Katz, 2004. "Sender or Receiver: Who Should Pay to Exchange an Electronic Message?," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 35(3), pages 423-447, Autumn.
  • Handle: RePEc:rje:randje:v:35:y:2004:3:p:423-447
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    Cited by:

    1. Baranes, Edmond & Poudou, Jean-Christophe, 2011. "Internet access and investment incentives for broadband service providers," 22nd European Regional ITS Conference, Budapest 2011: Innovative ICT Applications - Emerging Regulatory, Economic and Policy Issues 52196, International Telecommunications Society (ITS).
    2. Rojas, Christian, 2017. "How much is an incoming message worth? Estimating the call externality," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 23-37.
    3. Sjaak Hurkens & Ángel Luis López, 2010. "Mobile Termination and Consumer Expectations under the Receiver-Pays Regime," Working Papers 10-12, NET Institute.
    4. Jullien, Bruno & Sand-Zantman, Wilfried, 2018. "Internet regulation, two-sided pricing, and sponsored data," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 31-62.
    5. Hoernig, Steffen, 2014. "Competition between multiple asymmetric networks: Theory and applications," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 57-69.
    6. Wilko Bolt & Sujit Chakravorti, 2008. "Consumer choice and merchant acceptance of payment media," Working Paper Series WP-08-11, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    7. Hurkens, Sjaak & Jeon, Doh-Shin, 2009. "Mobile termination and mobile penetration," IESE Research Papers D/816, IESE Business School.
    8. Simon P. Anderson & André de Palma, 2009. "Information congestion," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 40(4), pages 688-709.
    9. de Bijl, P.W.J. & Brunekreeft, G. & van Damme, E.E.C. & Larouche, P. & Shelkoplyas, N. & Sorana, V., 2005. "Interconnected Networks," Discussion Paper 2005-007, Tilburg University, Tilburg Law and Economic Center.
    10. Bolt, Wilko & Tieman, Alexander F., 2008. "Heavily skewed pricing in two-sided markets," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 1250-1255, September.
    11. Hurkens, Sjaak & López, Ángel L., 2014. "Who Should Pay for Two-way Interconnection?," IESE Research Papers D/1102, IESE Business School.
    12. Engel, Christoph, 0. "Competition in a pure world of Internet telephony," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(8-9), pages 530-540, September.
    13. Schmalensee Richard, 2011. "Why is Platform Pricing Generally Highly Skewed?," Review of Network Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 10(4), pages 1-13, December.
    14. Doh-Shin Jeon & Sjaak Hurkens, 2007. "A Retail Benchmarking Approach to Efficient Two-way Access Pricing: Two-Part Tariffs," Working Papers 07-11, NET Institute, revised Sep 2007.
    15. repec:eee:joinma:v:42:y:2018:i:c:p:63-79 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Czajkowski, Mikołaj & Sobolewski, Maciej, 2016. "Estimating call externalities in mobile telephony," 27th European Regional ITS Conference, Cambridge (UK) 2016 148706, International Telecommunications Society (ITS).
    17. Mikołaj Czajkowski & Maciej Sobolewski, 2016. "Strategic use of external benefits for entry deterrence: the case of a mobile telephony market," Working Papers 2016-27, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw.
    18. Sjaak Hurkens & Angel L. Lopez, 2014. "Who should pay for two-way interconnection?," Working Papers 774, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
    19. Julian Wright, 2012. "Why payment card fees are biased against retailers," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 43(4), pages 761-780, December.
    20. Doh-Shin Jeon & Sjaak Hurkens, 2008. "A retail benchmarking approach to efficient two-way access pricing: no termination-based price discrimination-super-†," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 39(3), pages 822-849.
    21. Michael L. Katz, 2005. "What do we know about interchange fees and what does it mean for public policy? : commentary on Evans and Schmalensee," Proceedings – Payments System Research Conferences, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue May, pages 121-137.
    22. Cambini, Carlo & Valletti, Tommaso, 2005. "Information Exchange and Competition in Communications Networks," CEPR Discussion Papers 5031, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    23. Armstrong, Mark & Sappington, David E.M., 2007. "Recent Developments in the Theory of Regulation," Handbook of Industrial Organization, Elsevier.
    24. Frans Saxén, 2014. "The No Surcharge Rule and Merchant Competition," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 39-66, March.
    25. Sjaak Hurkens & Doh-Shin Jeon, 2008. "A Retail Benchmarking Approach to Efficient Two-Way Access Pricing: Termination-Based Price Discrimination with Elastic Subscription Demand," Working Papers 08-41, NET Institute, revised Nov 2008.

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