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Citations for "Using Electoral Cycles in Police Hiring to Estimate the Effect of Policeon Crime"

by Steven D. Levitt

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  1. Hannah Schildberg-Hörisch & Christina Strassmair, 2012. "An Experimental Test of the Deterrence Hypothesis," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 28(3), pages 447-459, August.
  2. Gould, Eric D. & Stecklov, Guy, 2009. "Terror and the Costs of Crime," CEPR Discussion Papers 7181, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Levitt, Steven D, 1996. "The Effect of Prison Population Size on Crime Rates: Evidence from Prison Overcrowding Litigation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 111(2), pages 319-51, May.
  4. John M. Nunley & Richard Alan Seals & Joachim Zietz, 2010. "Demographic Change, Macroeconomic Conditions, and the Murder Rate: The Case of the United States, 1934 to 2006," Auburn Economics Working Paper Series auwp2010-04, Department of Economics, Auburn University.
  5. Steinbuks, J., 2008. "Financial constraints and firms' investment: results of a natural experiment measuring firm response to power interruption," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0844, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  6. Siem Jan Koopman & André Lucas & Marius Ooms & Kees van Montfort & Victor van der Geest, 2007. "Estimating Systematic Continuous-time Trends in Recidivism using a Non-Gaussian Panel Data Model," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 07-027/4, Tinbergen Institute.
  7. Leah Brooks, 2006. "Volunteering To Be Taxed: Business Improvement Districts And The Extra-Governmental Provision Of Public Safety," Departmental Working Papers 2006-04, McGill University, Department of Economics.
  8. Jeffrey DeSimone, 1999. "The Effect of Cocaine Prices on Crime," Working Papers 9907, East Carolina University, Department of Economics.
  9. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:11:y:2004:i:2:p:1-9 is not listed on IDEAS
  10. Margarita Katsimi & Vassilis Sarantides, 2012. "Do elections affect the composition of fiscal policy in developed, established democracies?," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 151(1), pages 325-362, April.
  11. Khemani, Stuti, 2004. "Political cycles in a developing economy: effect of elections in the Indian States," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 125-154, February.
  12. Dean Yang, 2008. "Can Enforcement Backfire? Crime Displacement in the Context of Customs Reform in the Philippines," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(1), pages 1-14, February.
  13. D'Este, Rocco, 2014. "The Effect of Stolen Goods Markets on Crime: Evidence from a Quasi - Natural Experiment," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 1040, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  14. Michael P. Murray, 2006. "Avoiding Invalid Instruments and Coping with Weak Instruments," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 20(4), pages 111-132, Fall.
  15. Lance Lochner, 2005. "Individual Perceptions of the Criminal Justice System," 2005 Meeting Papers 452, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  16. Clark, Andrew E. & Milcent, Carine, 2011. "Public employment and political pressure: The case of French hospitals," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 1103-1112.
  17. Bedard, Kelly & Helland, Eric, 2004. "The location of women's prisons and the deterrence effect of "harder" time," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 147-167, June.
  18. Robert MacCulloch, 2001. "What makes a revolution?," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 6649, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  19. Rodrigo R. Soares & Joana Naritomi, 2010. "Understanding High Crime Rates in Latin America: The Role of Social and Policy Factors," NBER Chapters, in: The Economics of Crime: Lessons for and from Latin America, pages 19-55 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Raphael, Steven & Winter-Ember, Rudolf, 2001. "Identifying the Effect of Unemployment on Crime," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 44(1), pages 259-83, April.
  21. Ajilore, Olugbenga & Smith, John, 2010. "Ethnic fragmentation and police spending," MPRA Paper 19967, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  22. Ben Vollaard & Pierre Koning, 2005. "Estimating police effectiveness with individual victimisation data," CPB Discussion Paper 47, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
  23. Heckman, James J. & Masterov, Dimitriy V., 2007. "The Productivity Argument for Investing in Young Children," IZA Discussion Papers 2725, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  24. Adrian Stoian & Price V. Fishback, 2009. "Welfare Spending and Mortality Rates for the Elderly Before the Social Security Era," NBER Working Papers 14970, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  25. Robert Witt & Ann Dryden Witte, 1998. "Crime, Imprisonment, and Female Labor Force Participation: A Time-Series Approach," NBER Working Papers 6786, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  26. Gaviria, Alejandro, 2000. "Increasing returns and the evolution of violent crime: the case of Colombia," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 1-25, February.
  27. Entorf, Horst & Winker, Peter, 2002. "The Economics of Crime: Investigating the Drugs-Crime Channel," Darmstadt Discussion Papers in Economics 224, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute of Economics (VWL).
  28. Yamamura, Eiji, 2009. "Formal and informal deterrents of crime in Japan: Roles of police and social capital revisited," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 611-621, August.
  29. H. Naci Mocan & Daniel I. Rees, 1999. "Economic Conditions, Deterrence and Juvenile Crime: Evidence from Micro Data," NBER Working Papers 7405, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  30. Ann Dryden Witte & Robert Witt, 2001. "What We Spend and What We Get: Public and Private Provision of Crime Prevention," NBER Working Papers 8204, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  31. Poutvaara, Panu & Priks, Mikael, 2009. "The effect of police intelligence on group violence: Evidence from reassignments in Sweden," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(3-4), pages 403-411, April.
  32. Fougère, Denis & Kramarz, Francis & Pouget, Julien, 2006. "Youth Unemployment and Crime in France," IZA Discussion Papers 2009, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  33. Patricia Funk & Christina Gathmann, 2009. "Does Direct Democracy Reduce the Size of Government? New Evidence from Historical Data, 1890-2000," CESifo Working Paper Series 2693, CESifo Group Munich.
  34. Jason Chan & Anindya Ghose & Robert Seamans, 2013. "The Internet and Hate Crime: Offline Spillovers from Online Access," Working Papers 13-02, NET Institute.
  35. Jeffrey R. Kling & Jens Ludwig, 2006. "Is Crime Contagious?," Working Papers 889, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  36. Meloni, Osvaldo, 2012. "Is there an electoral-motivated crime rate cycle? Evidence from Argentina," MPRA Paper 40177, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  37. Spenkuch, Jörg L., 2010. "Understanding the Impact of Immigration on Crime," MPRA Paper 22864, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  38. Christian Almer & Timo Goeschl, 2011. "The political economy of the environmental criminal justice system: a production function approach," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 148(3), pages 611-630, September.
  39. Machin, Stephen & Marie, Olivier, 2005. "Crime and Police Resources: The Street Crime Initiative," IZA Discussion Papers 1853, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  40. Paresh Kumar Narayan & Ingrid Nielsen & Russell Smyth, 2010. "Is There a Natural Rate of Crime?," American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 69(2), pages 759-782, 04.
  41. Suncica Vujic & Siem Jan Koopman & Jacques J. F. Commandeur, 2012. "Economic Trends and Cycles in Crime: A Study for England and Wales," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 232(6), pages 652-677, November.
  42. Kollias, Christos & Mylonidis, Nikolaos & Paleologou, Suzanna-Maria, 2013. "Crime and the effectiveness of public order spending in Greece: Policy implications of some persistent findings," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 121-133.
  43. Cohen, Mark A. & Miller, Ted R., 2003. ""Willingness to award" nonmonetary damages and the implied value of life from jury awards," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 165-181, June.
  44. Halicioglu, Ferda & Andrés, Antonio R. & Yamamura, Eiji, 2012. "Modeling crime in Japan," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 1640-1645.
  45. Almeida, Rita & Carneiro, Pedro, 2008. "Enforcement of labor regulation and firm size," Social Protection Discussion Papers 43675, The World Bank.
  46. Kevin Denny & Colm Harmon & Reamonn Lydon, 2004. "An Econometric Analysis of Burglary in Ireland," Working Papers 200416, School Of Economics, University College Dublin.
  47. Duha T. Altindag, 2011. "Crime and Unemployment: Evidence from Europe," Auburn Economics Working Paper Series auwp2011-13, Department of Economics, Auburn University.
  48. Horst Entorf & Hannes Spengler, 2005. "Ökonometrie der Kriminalität," Ifo Schnelldienst, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 58(16), pages 13-25, 08.
  49. Andrew Haughwout & Robert Inman & Steven G. Craig & Thomas Luce, 2000. "Local Revenue Hills: Evidence from Four U. S. Cities," PIER Working Paper Archive 03-012, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, revised 01 Mar 2003.
  50. Dawid, H. & Feichtinger, G. & Novak, A., 2002. "Extortion as an obstacle to economic growth: a dynamic game analysis," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 499-516, September.
  51. Lin, Ming-Jen, 2007. "Does democracy increase crime? The evidence from international data," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 467-483, September.
  52. Johannes Rincke & Christian Traxler, 2009. "Deterrence through Word of Mouth," CESifo Working Paper Series 2549, CESifo Group Munich.
  53. Thiess Buettner, 2003. "Local Determinants of Crime: Distinguishing Between Resident and Non-resident Offenders," ERSA conference papers ersa03p396, European Regional Science Association.
  54. Entorf, Horst, 2012. "Certainty and Severity of Sanctions in Classical and Behavioral Models of Deterrence: A Survey," IZA Discussion Papers 6516, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  55. Thomas A. Garrett & Lesli S. Ott, 2008. "City business cycles and crime," Working Papers 2008-026, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  56. John J. Donohue III & Steven D. Levitt, 1998. "The Impact of Race on Policing, Arrest Patterns, and Crime," NBER Working Papers 6784, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  57. Hannes Spengler, 2006. "Eine panelökonometrische Evaluation des deutschen Strafverfolgungssystems," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 226(6), pages 687-714, November.
  58. Ben Vollaard, 2005. "Police numbers up, crime rates down. The effect of police on crime in the Netherlands, 1996-2003," Law and Economics 0501006, EconWPA.
  59. Guido Travaglini, 2003. "Property Crime and Law Enforcement in Italy. A Regional Panel Analysis 1980-95," Giornale degli Economisti, GDE (Giornale degli Economisti e Annali di Economia), Bocconi University, vol. 62(2), pages 211-240, October.
  60. Spyros Skouras & Nicos Christodoulakis, 2011. "Electoral Misgovernance Cycles: Evidence from wildfires and tax evasion in Greece and elsewhere," GreeSE – Hellenic Observatory Papers on Greece and Southeast Europe 47, Hellenic Observatory, LSE.
  61. Bryan Engelhardt, 2008. "The Effect of Employment Frictions on Crime: Theory and Estimation," Working Papers 0805, College of the Holy Cross, Department of Economics.
  62. Lance Lochner, 2001. "A Theoretical and Empirical Study of Individual Perceptions of the Criminal Justice System," RCER Working Papers 483, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
  63. Marcel Fafchamps & Bart Minten, 2004. "Insecurity and Welfare," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2004-31, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  64. Sean Muller, 2012. "Econometric methods and Reichenbach's principle," SALDRU Working Papers 85, Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town.
  65. Ana María Cerro & Osvaldo Meloni, 2005. "Determinants of the Crime Rate in Argentina during the 90's," Law and Economics 0504001, EconWPA.
  66. Marco Castillo & Ragan Petrie & Maximo Torero & Angelino Viceisza, 2014. "Lost In The Mail: A Field Experiment On Crime," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 52(1), pages 285-303, 01.
  67. Paul J. Zak, 2000. "Larceny," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 1(2), pages 157-179, 07.
  68. Ren, Ling & Zhao, Jihong & Lovrich, Nicholas P., 2008. "Liberal versus conservative public policies on crime: What was the comparative track record during the 1990s?," Journal of Criminal Justice, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 316-325, August.
  69. Andrew E. Clark & Carine Milcent, 2008. "Keynesian hospitals? Public employment and political pressure," PSE Working Papers halshs-00586792, HAL.
  70. Nicola Persico, 2002. "Racial Profiling, Fairness, and Effectiveness of Policing," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(5), pages 1472-1497, December.
  71. Almeida, Rita & Carneiro, Pedro, 2005. "Enforcement of labor regulation, informal labor, and firm performance," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3756, The World Bank.
  72. Soares, Rodrigo R. & Viveiros, Igor, 2010. "Organization and Information in the Fight against Crime: An Evaluation of the Integration of Police Forces in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil," IZA Discussion Papers 5270, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  73. Andrew E. Clark & Carine Milcent, 2008. "Keynesian hospitals? Public employment and political pressure," Working Papers halshs-00586792, HAL.
  74. Guha, Brishti & Guha, Ashok S., 2012. "Crime and moral hazard: Does more policing necessarily induce private negligence?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 115(3), pages 455-459.
  75. Bushway, Shawn & DeAngelo, Gregory & Hansen, Benjamin, 2013. "Deterability by age," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 70-81.
  76. Shawn A. Cole, 2008. "Fixing Market Failures or Fixing Elections? Agricultural Credit in India," Harvard Business School Working Papers 09-001, Harvard Business School.
  77. Alejandro Gaviria & Carlos Medina & Jorge Tamayo, 2010. "Assessing the Link between Adolescent Fertility and Urban Crime," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 006860, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  78. Levitt, Steven D, 1998. "Why Do Increased Arrest Rates Appear to Reduce Crime: Deterrence, Incapacitation, or Measurement Error?," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 36(3), pages 353-72, July.
  79. Daniel Montolio & Albert Solé-Ollé, 2009. "Road investment and regional productivity growth: the effects of vehicle intensity and congestion," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 88(1), pages 99-118, 03.
  80. Kousky, Carolyn & Luttmer, Erzo F. P. & Zeckhauser, Richard, 2006. "Private Investment and Government Protection," Working Paper Series rwp06-017, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
  81. Joshua Angrist, 2005. "Instrumental Variables Methods in Experimental Criminological Research: What, Why, and How?," NBER Technical Working Papers 0314, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  82. Katherine Baicker & Mireille Jacobson, 2004. "Finders Keepers: Forfeiture Laws, Policing Incentives, and Local Budgets," NBER Working Papers 10484, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  83. Donald W.K. Andrews & Vadim Marmer, 2005. "Exactly Distribution-free Inference in Instrumental Variables Regression with Possibly Weak Instruments," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1501, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  84. Shoesmith, Gary L., 2013. "Space–time autoregressive models and forecasting national, regional and state crime rates," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 191-201.
  85. Draca, Mirko & Machin, Stephen & Witt, Robert, 2008. "Panic on the Streets of London: Police, Crime and the July 2005 Terror Attacks," IZA Discussion Papers 3410, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  86. Daniel Beland & Patrik Marier, 2004. "The Politics of Protest Avoidance: Policy Windows, Labor Mobilization, and Pension Reform in France," Social and Economic Dimensions of an Aging Population Research Papers 114, McMaster University.
  87. Bruno S. Frey, 2009. "Punishment ? and beyond," CREMA Working Paper Series 2009-14, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).
  88. C. Fritz Foley, 2008. "Welfare Payments and Crime," NBER Working Papers 14074, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  89. H. Naci Mocan & Stephen C. Billups & Jody Overland, 2005. "A Dynamic Model of Differential Human Capital and Criminal Activity," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 72(288), pages 655-681, November.
  90. Ryan S. Johnson & Shawn Kantor & Price V. Fishback, 2007. "Striking at the Roots of Crime: The Impact of Social Welfare Spending on Crime During the Great Depression," NBER Working Papers 12825, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  91. Philip J. Cook & Jens Ludwig, 2002. "The Effects of Gun Prevalence on Burglary: Deterrence vs Inducement," NBER Working Papers 8926, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  92. Pettersson Lidbom, Per, 2003. "A Test of the Rational Electoral-Cycle Hypothesis," Research Papers in Economics 2003:16, Stockholm University, Department of Economics.
  93. Ian Ayres & Steven D. Levitt, 1997. "Measuring Positive Externalities from Unobservable Victim Precaution: An Empirical Analysis of Lojack," NBER Working Papers 5928, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  94. Huber, Martin, 2012. "Statistical verification of a natural "natural experiment": Tests and sensitivity checks for the sibling sex ratio instrument," Economics Working Paper Series 1219, University of St. Gallen, School of Economics and Political Science.
  95. Traub, Stefan, 2006. "The Provision of Local Public Services in a Risky Environment: An Application to Crime," Economics Working Papers 2006,03, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Economics.
  96. Hope Corman & Kelly Noonan & Nancy E. Reichman & Ofira Schwartz-Soicher, 2006. "Crime and Circumstance: The Effects of Infant Health Shocks on Fathers' Criminal Activity," NBER Working Papers 12754, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  97. Paul A. Bekker & Jan van der Ploeg, 2000. "Instrumental Variable Estimation Based on Grouped Data," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 1862, Econometric Society.
  98. Mark Duggan, 2000. "More Guns, More Crime," NBER Working Papers 7967, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  99. Entorf, Horst, 2007. "Evaluation des Maßregelvollzugs: Grundzüge einer Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse," Darmstadt Discussion Papers in Economics 35718, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute of Economics (VWL).
  100. Nilsson, Anna, 2004. "Income Inequality and Crime: The Case of Sweden," Research Papers in Economics 2004:3, Stockholm University, Department of Economics.
  101. Edlund, Lena & Li, Hongbin & Yi, Junjian & Zhang, Junsen, 2007. "Sex Ratios and Crime: Evidence from China’s One-Child Policy," IZA Discussion Papers 3214, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  102. Horst Entorf & Hannes Spengler, 2008. "Is Being 'Soft on Crime' the Solution to Rising Crime Rates?: Evidence from Germany," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 837, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  103. Baicker, Katherine & Jacobson, Mireille, 2007. "Finders keepers: Forfeiture laws, policing incentives, and local budgets," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(11-12), pages 2113-2136, December.
  104. Entorf, Horst & Spengler, Hannes, 2000. "Socioeconomic and demographic factors of crime in Germany: Evidence from panel data of the German states," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 75-106, March.
  105. Rafael Di Tella & Ernesto Schargrodsky, 2004. "Do Police Reduce Crime? Estimates Using the Allocation of Police Forces After a Terrorist Attack," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(1), pages 115-133, March.
  106. Anna Piil Damm & Christian Dustmann, 2013. "Does Growing Up in a High Crime Neighborhood Affect Youth Criminal Behavior?," Norface Discussion Paper Series 2013025, Norface Research Programme on Migration, Department of Economics, University College London.
  107. Joseph J. Doyle, Jr., 2007. "Child Protection and Adult Crime: Using Investigator Assignment to Estimate Causal Effects of Foster Care," NBER Working Papers 13291, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  108. Alexandre Mas, 2006. "Pay, Reference Points, and Police Performance," NBER Working Papers 12202, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  109. Bjorn Frank & Guenther G. Schulze, 2000. "Deterrence versus Intrinsic Motivation: Experimental Evidence on the Determinants of Corruptibility," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0950, Econometric Society.
  110. Garett Jones & Ali Kutan, 2004. "Volatile Interest Rates, Volatile Crime Rates: A new argument for interest-rate smoothing," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 2004-694, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  111. Panu Poutvaara & Mikael Priks, 2006. "Hooliganism in the Shadow of the 9/11 Terrorist Attack and the Tsunami: Do Police Reduce Group Violence?," CESifo Working Paper Series 1882, CESifo Group Munich.
  112. Steven D. Levitt, 1998. "Juvenile Crime and Punishment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(6), pages 1156-1185, December.
  113. Ma. Guillamón & Francisco Bastida & Bernardino Benito, 2013. "The electoral budget cycle on municipal police expenditure," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 36(3), pages 447-469, December.
  114. Sieger, Philip, 2013. "Job Losses and Criminal Gains: Analyzing the Effect of Unemployment on Criminal Activity," Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 79929, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
  115. Nilsson, Anna & Agell, Jonas, 2003. "Crime, Unemployment and Labor Market Programs in Turbulent Times," Research Papers in Economics 2003:13, Stockholm University, Department of Economics.
  116. Levitt Steven & Mauricio Rubio, 2000. "Understanding Crime in Colombia and What Can Be Done About It," WORKING PAPERS SERIES. DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO 003735, FEDESARROLLO.
  117. Niklas Potrafke, 2006. "Political Effects on the Allocation of Public Expenditures: Empirical Evidence from OECD Countries," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 653, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  118. Kelaher, Richard & Sarafidis, Vasilis, 2011. "Crime and Punishment Revisited," MPRA Paper 28213, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  119. Edward L. Glaeser & Bruce Sacerdote, 2000. "The Determinants of Punishment: Deterrence, Incapacitation and Vengeance," NBER Working Papers 7676, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  120. Lauridsen, Jørgen T. & Zeren, Fatma & Ari, Ayse, 2014. "Is crime in Turkey economically rational?," Discussion Papers of Business and Economics 3/2014, Department of Business and Economics, University of Southern Denmark.
  121. Jeffrey D. Kubik & John R. Moran, 2001. "Lethal Elections: Gubernatorial Politics and the Timing of Executions," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 40, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
  122. Reyes, Luis Carlos, 2011. "Estimating the causal effect of forced eradication on coca cultivation in Colombian municipalities," MPRA Paper 33478, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  123. Justin McCrary, 2002. "Using Electoral Cycles in Police Hiring to Estimate the Effect of Police on Crime: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(4), pages 1236-1243, September.
  124. Entorf, Horst & Winker, Peter, 2001. "The Economics of Crime: Investigating the Drugs-Crime Channel - Empirical Evidence from Panel Data of the German States," W.E.P. - Würzburg Economic Papers 29, University of Würzburg, Chair for Monetary Policy and International Economics.
  125. Wheaton, William C., 2006. "Metropolitan fragmentation, law enforcement effort and urban crime," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 1-14, July.
  126. Islam, Asif, 2011. "Police and Crime Against Firms in Developing Economies," MPRA Paper 36725, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  127. Parikshit Ghosh, 2009. "Making the Punishment Fit the Crime or Taliban Justice? Optimal Penalties Without Commitment," Working papers 175, Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics.
  128. Entorf, Horst & Sprengler, Hannes, 1998. "Kriminalität, ihre Ursachen und ihre Bekämpfung: Warum auch Ökonomen gefragt sind," ZEW Dokumentationen 98-01, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  129. Anna Nilsson & Jonas Agell, 2014. "Crime, Unemployment and Labor Market Programs in Turbulent Times," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 15(2), pages 893-961, November.
  130. Spengler, Hannes, 2005. "Eine panelökonometrische Überprüfung der ökonomischen Theorie der Kriminalität mit deutschen Bundesländerdaten," Darmstadt Discussion Papers in Economics 36801, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute of Economics (VWL).
  131. Andrew Dyke, 2007. "Electoral cycles in the administration of criminal justice," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 133(3), pages 417-437, December.
  132. Nilsson, Anna, 2004. "Income inequality and crime: The case of Sweden," Working Paper Series 2004:6, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
  133. Lauridsen, Jorgen, 2010. "Is Polish Crime Economically Rational?," Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, Mid-Continent Regional Science Association, vol. 40(2).
  134. Michael Waldman & Sean Nicholson & Nodir Adilov, 2006. "Does Television Cause Autism?," NBER Working Papers 12632, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  135. Kausik Chaudhuri & Payel Chowdhury & Kevin Reilly, 2013. "A New Perspective on Violent Crime Burden Index: Evidence from Indian Districts," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 110(2), pages 771-789, January.
  136. Hanson, Andrew, 2009. "Local employment, poverty, and property value effects of geographically-targeted tax incentives: An instrumental variables approach," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 721-731, November.
  137. Steven D. Levitt, 2004. "Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors that Explain the Decline and Six that Do Not," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(1), pages 163-190, Winter.
  138. Makowsky, Michael & Thomas, Stratmann, 2008. "More Tickets, Fewer Accidents: How Cash-Strapped Towns Make for Safer Roads," MPRA Paper 14360, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  139. Margarita Katsimi & Vassilis Sarantides, 2010. "Do Elections Affect the Composition of Fiscal Policy?," CESifo Working Paper Series 2908, CESifo Group Munich.
  140. Zhao, Jihong & Ren, Ling & Lovrich, Nicholas P., 2010. "Budgetary support for police services in U.S. municipalities: Comparing political culture, socioeconomic characteristics and incrementalism as rival explanations for budget share allocation to police," Journal of Criminal Justice, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 266-275, May.
  141. Vollaard, Ben & Koning, Pierre, 2009. "The effect of police on crime, disorder and victim precaution. Evidence from a Dutch victimization survey," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 336-348, December.
  142. Jonathan Klick & Alexander Tabarrok, . "Using Terror Alert Levels to Estimate the Effect of Police on Crime," American Law & Economics Association Annual Meetings 1042, American Law & Economics Association.
  143. Jeffrey D. Kubik & John R. Moran, 2001. "Can Policy Changes Be Treated as Natural Experiments? Evidence from State Excise Taxes," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 39, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
  144. Entorf, Horst & Winker, Peter, 2006. "Investigating the Drugs-Crime Channel in Economics of Crime Models Empirical Evidence from Panel Data of the German States," Darmstadt Discussion Papers in Economics 36776, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute of Economics (VWL).
  145. Haroon Bhorat & Ravi Kanbur & Natasha Mayet, 2011. "Estimating the Causal Effect of Enforcement on Minimum Wage Compliance : The Case of South Africa," Working Papers 11145, University of Cape Town, Development Policy Research Unit.
  146. Entorf, Horst & Meyer, Susanne, 2004. "Kosten und Nutzen des Strafvollzuges: Grundlagen im Rahmen einer rationalen Kriminalpolitik," Darmstadt Discussion Papers in Economics 37290, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute of Economics (VWL).
  147. Ammermueller, Andreas, 2012. "Violence in European schools: A widespread phenomenon that matters for educational production," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 908-922.
  148. Cerro, Ana María & Rodríguez Andrés, Antonio, 2011. "Typologies of Crime in the Argentine Provinces. A Panel Study 2000-2008," MPRA Paper 44460, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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