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Citations for "Job Creation or Destruction? Labor-Market Effects of Wal-Mart Expansion Abstract: This paper estimates the effect of Wal-Mart expansion on retail employmentat the county level. Using an instrumental-variables approach to correct forboth measurement error in entry dates and endogeneity of the timing ofentry, I find that Wal-Mart entry increases retail employment by 100 jobsin the year of entry. Half of this gain disappears over the next five years asother retail establishments exit and contract, leaving a long-run statisticallysignificant net gain of 50 jobs. Wholesale employment declines by approximately20 jobs due to Wal-Marts vertical integration. No spillover effect isdetected in retail sectors in which Wal-Mart does not compete directly, suggesting Wal-Mart does not create agglomeration economies in retail trade atthe county level. Classification-JEL: J21, L11, L81"

by Emek Basker

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