The Evolving Food Chain: Competitive Effects of Wal-Mart's Entry Into The Supermarket Industry
We analyze the effect of Wal-Mart's entry into the grocery market using a unique stor-level price panel data set. We use OLS and two IV specifications to estimate the effect of Wal-Mart's entry on competitors' prices of 24 grocery items across several categories. Wal-Mart's price advantage over competitors for these products averages approximately 10%. On average, competitors' response to Wal-Mart's entry is a price reduction of 1-1.2%, mostly due to smaller-scale competitors: the response of the "big three" supermarket chains (Alberson's, Safeway, and Kroger) is less than half that size. We confirm our results using a falsification exercises, in which we test for Wal-Mart's effect on prices of services that it does not provide, such as movie tickets and dry cleaning services.
|Date of creation:||01 Jun 2007|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0508|
Phone: (858) 534-3383
Fax: (858) 534-7040
Web page: http://www.escholarship.org/repec/ucsdecon/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Emek Basker, 2005.
"Job Creation or Destruction? Labor Market Effects of Wal-Mart Expansion,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 87(1), pages 174-183, February.
- Emek Basker, 2002. "Job Creation or Destruction? Labor-Market Effects of Wal-Mart Expansion," Working Papers 0215, Department of Economics, University of Missouri, revised Jan 2004.
- Emek Basker, 2003. "Job Creation or Destruction? Labor-Market Effects of Wal-Mart Expansion," Labor and Demography 0303002, EconWPA, revised 11 Mar 2005.
- Jerry Hausman & Ephraim Leibtag, 2004.
"CPI Bias from Supercenters: Does the BLS Know that Wal-Mart Exists?,"
NBER Working Papers
10712, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jerry Hausman & Ephraim Leibtag, 2009. "CPI Bias from Supercenters: Does the BLS Know that Wal-Mart Exists?," NBER Chapters, in: Price Index Concepts and Measurement, pages 203-231 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ellickson, Paul, 2005. "Supermarkets as a Natural Oligopoly," Working Papers 05-04, Duke University, Department of Economics.
- David C. Parsley & Shang-Jin Wei, 1996.
"Convergence to the Law of One Price Without Trade Barriers or Currency Fluctuations,"
NBER Working Papers
5654, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- David C. Parsley & Shang-Jin Wei, 1996. "Convergence to the Law of One Price Without Trade Barriers or Currency Fluctuations," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 111(4), pages 1211-1236.
- Douglas Staiger & James H. Stock, 1994.
"Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments,"
NBER Technical Working Papers
0151, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Douglas Staiger & James H. Stock, 1997. "Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(3), pages 557-586, May.
- Frankel, D.M., 1996.
"The (Retail) Price of Inequality,"
23-96, Tel Aviv.
- David M. Frankel, 2000. "The Retail Price of Inequality," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0577, Econometric Society.
- Frankel, David M. & Gould, Eric, 2001. "The Retail Price of Inequality," Staff General Research Papers Archive 11922, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Daniel Aaronson, 2001. "Price Pass-Through And The Minimum Wage," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 83(1), pages 158-169, February.
- Vishal P. Singh & Karsten T. Hansen & Robert C. Blattberg, 2006. "Market Entry and Consumer Behavior: An Investigation of a Wal-Mart Supercenter," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 25(5), pages 457-476, September.
- Andrew W. Franklin, 2001. "The impact of Wal-Mart supercenters on supermarket concentration in U.S. metropolitan areas," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(1), pages 105-114.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cdl:ucsdec:qt4nq8d4sm. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lisa Schiff)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.