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Job Creation or Destruction? Labor-Market Effects of Wal-Mart Expansion Abstract: This paper estimates the effect of Wal-Mart expansion on retail employmentat the county level. Using an instrumental-variables approach to correct forboth measurement error in entry dates and endogeneity of the timing ofentry, I find that Wal-Mart entry increases retail employment by 100 jobsin the year of entry. Half of this gain disappears over the next five years asother retail establishments exit and contract, leaving a long-run statisticallysignificant net gain of 50 jobs. Wholesale employment declines by approximately20 jobs due to Wal-Marts vertical integration. No spillover effect isdetected in retail sectors in which Wal-Mart does not compete directly, suggesting Wal-Mart does not create agglomeration economies in retail trade atthe county level. Classification-JEL: J21, L11, L81

  • Emek Basker

    ()

    (Department of Economics, University of Missouri-Columbia)

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File URL: https://economics.missouri.edu/working-papers/2002/wp0215_basker.pdf
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Paper provided by Department of Economics, University of Missouri in its series Working Papers with number 0215.

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Length: 34 pgs.
Date of creation: Jun 2002
Date of revision: Jan 2004
Publication status: Published in Review of Economics and Statistics, vol. 87, no. 1 (2005), pp. 174-183
Handle: RePEc:umc:wpaper:0215
Contact details of provider: Postal: 118 Professional Building, Columbia, MO 65211
Phone: (573) 882-0063
Fax: (573) 882-2697
Web page: http://economics.missouri.edu/

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  1. Thomas J. Holmes & John J. Stevens, 2004. "Geographic concentration and establishment size: analysis in an alternative economic geography model," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 4(3), pages 227-250, June.
  2. Thomas J. Kane & Cecilia Rouse & Douglas Staiger, 1999. "Estimating Returns to Schooling When Schooling is Misreported," Working Papers 798, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  3. Bertrand, Marianne & Kramarz, Francis, 2002. "Does Entry Regulation Hinder Job Creation? Evidence from the French Retail Industry," IZA Discussion Papers 415, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
  5. Lucia Foster & John Haltiwanger & C.J. Krizan, 2002. "The Link Between Aggregate and Micro Productivity Growth: Evidence from Retail Trade," NBER Working Papers 9120, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Pashigian, B Peter & Gould, Eric D, 1998. "Internalizing Externalities: The Pricing of Space in Shopping Malls," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 41(1), pages 115-42, April.
  7. Maddala, G S & Wu, Shaowen, 1999. " A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 631-52, Special I.
  8. Thomas J. Kane & Cecilia Elena Rouse & Douglas Staiger, 1999. "Estimating Returns to Schooling When Schooling is Misreported," NBER Working Papers 7235, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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