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Job Creation or Destruction? Labor-Market Effects of Wal-Mart Expansion

  • Emek Basker

    (University of Missouri)

This paper estimates the effect of Wal-Mart expansion on retail employment at the county level. Using an instrumental-variables approach to correct for both measurement error in entry dates and endogeneity of the timing of entry, I find that Wal-Mart entry increases retail employment by 100 jobs in the year of entry. Half of this gain disappears over the next five years as other retail establishments exit and contract, leaving a long-run statistically significant net gain of 50 jobs. Wholesale employment declines by approximately 20 jobs due to Wal-Mart's vertical integration. No spillover effect is detected in retail sectors in which Wal-Mart does not compete directly, suggesting Wal-Mart does not create agglomeration economies in retail trade at the county level.

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File URL: http://econwpa.repec.org/eps/lab/papers/0303/0303002.pdf
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Paper provided by EconWPA in its series Labor and Demography with number 0303002.

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Length: 46 pages
Date of creation: 13 Mar 2003
Date of revision: 11 Mar 2005
Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpla:0303002
Note: Type of Document - pdf; prepared on IBM PC - PC-TEX; to print on PostScript; pages: 46 ; figures: included. University of Missouri Working Paper 02-15
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://econwpa.repec.org

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  1. Marianne Bertrand & Francis Kramarz, 2002. "Does Entry Regulation Hinder Job Creation? Evidence From The French Retail Industry," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 117(4), pages 1369-1413, November.
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  17. Stone, Kenneth E., 1991. "Competing with the Mass Merchandisers," Staff General Research Papers 11230, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
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