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Does Entry Regulation Hinder Job Creation? Evidence from the French Retail Industry

Author

Listed:
  • Bertrand, Marianne

    (University of Chicago)

  • Kramarz, Francis

    (CREST (ENSAE))

Abstract

Are product market and entry regulation key sources of low employment growth in many European countries? We investigate this question in the context of the French retail trade industry. Since 1974, approval by regional zoning boards has been required for the creation or extension of any large retail store in France. We exploit a unique database that provides time and region specific variation in boards’ approval decisions. We show that stronger deterrence of entry by the boards, and the increase in large retail chains’ concentration it induced, slowed down employment growth in France.

Suggested Citation

  • Bertrand, Marianne & Kramarz, Francis, 2002. "Does Entry Regulation Hinder Job Creation? Evidence from the French Retail Industry," IZA Discussion Papers 415, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp415
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Alan Krueger & Jorn-Steffen Pischke, 1997. "Observations and Conjectures on the U.S. Employment Miracle," Working Papers 769, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
    2. David Card & Francis Kramarz & Thomas Lemieux, 1999. "Changes in the Relative Structure of Wages and Employment: A Comparison of the United States, Canada, and France," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 32(4), pages 843-877, August.
    3. Alan B. Krueger & Jorn-Steffen Pischke, 1997. "Observations and Conjectures on the U.S. Employment Miracle," Working Papers 769, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
    4. Gersbach, Hans, 2000. "Promoting Product Market Competition to Reduce Unemployment in Europe: An Alternative Approach?," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(2), pages 117-133.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    employment; retail trade; zoning regulation;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • L43 - Industrial Organization - - Antitrust Issues and Policies - - - Legal Monopolies and Regulation or Deregulation
    • L81 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Retail and Wholesale Trade; e-Commerce

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