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Does Entry Regulation Hinder Job Creation? Evidence from the French Retail Industry

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  • Bertrand, Marianne

    (University of Chicago)

  • Kramarz, Francis

    (CREST (ENSAE))

Abstract

Are product market and entry regulation key sources of low employment growth in many European countries? We investigate this question in the context of the French retail trade industry. Since 1974, approval by regional zoning boards has been required for the creation or extension of any large retail store in France. We exploit a unique database that provides time and region specific variation in boards’ approval decisions. We show that stronger deterrence of entry by the boards, and the increase in large retail chains’ concentration it induced, slowed down employment growth in France.

Suggested Citation

  • Bertrand, Marianne & Kramarz, Francis, 2002. "Does Entry Regulation Hinder Job Creation? Evidence from the French Retail Industry," IZA Discussion Papers 415, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp415
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    1. Simeon Djankov & Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 2002. "The Regulation of Entry," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(1), pages 1-37.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    employment; retail trade; zoning regulation;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • L43 - Industrial Organization - - Antitrust Issues and Policies - - - Legal Monopolies and Regulation or Deregulation
    • L81 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Retail and Wholesale Trade; e-Commerce

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