Firm Entry and Wages: Impact of Wal-Mart Growth on Earnings Throughout the Retail Sector
This paper estimates the effect of Wal-Mart expansion on wages, benefits, and skill-composition of retail workers during the 1990s. We exploit the spatial pattern of Wal-Mart diffusion, radiating outward from the original store in Benton county, Arkansas, to control for potential endogeneity in store openings using both instrumental variable and control function approaches. Estimates from state and county level data suggest that store openings reduced both the average earnings and health benefits of retail workers. At the county level, a new Wal-Mart is found to reduce retail earnings, on average, by .5 to .9 percent. Moreover, we find that changes in skill-composition explain only a small part of compensation reduction, indicating that the decline in retail wages reflect a reduction in labor market rents.
|Date of creation:||06 Aug 2007|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 2521 Channing Way # 5555, Berkeley, CA 94720-5555|
Web page: http://www.escholarship.org/repec/iir_iirwps/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Davis, Elizabeth E. & Freedman, Matthew & Lane, Julia & McCall, Brian P. & Nestoriak, Nicole & Park, Timothy A., 2005.
"Product Market Competition and Human Resource Practices: An Analysis of the Retail Food Sector,"
14349, University of Minnesota, The Food Industry Center.
- Elizabeth Davis & Matthew Freedman & Julia Lane & Brian McCall & Nicole Nestoriak & Timothy Park, "undated". "Product Market Competition and Human Resource Practices: An Analysis of the Retail Food Sector," Working Papers 0905, Human Resources and Labor Studies, University of Minnesota (Twin Cities Campus).
- Emek Basker, 2007.
"The Causes and Consequences of Wal-Mart's Growth,"
Journal of Economic Perspectives,
American Economic Association, vol. 21(3), pages 177-198, Summer.
- Emek Basker, 2003.
"Job Creation or Destruction? Labor-Market Effects of Wal-Mart Expansion,"
Labor and Demography
0303002, EconWPA, revised 11 Mar 2005.
- Emek Basker, 2005. "Job Creation or Destruction? Labor Market Effects of Wal-Mart Expansion," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(1), pages 174-183, February.
- Emek Basker, 2002. "Job Creation or Destruction? Labor-Market Effects of Wal-Mart Expansion," Working Papers 0215, Department of Economics, University of Missouri, revised Jan 2004.
- Neumark, David & Zhang, Junfu & Ciccarella, Stephen, 2008.
"The effects of Wal-Mart on local labor markets,"
Journal of Urban Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 405-430, March.
- David Neumark & Junfu Zhang & Stephen Ciccarella, 2006. "The Effects of Wal-Mart on Local Labor Markets," Working Papers 060711, University of California-Irvine, Department of Economics.
- David Neumark & Junfu Zhang & Stephen Ciccarella, 2005. "The Effects of Wal-Mart on Local Labor Markets," NBER Working Papers 11782, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Neumark, David & Zhang, Junfu & Ciccarella, Stephen, 2007. "The Effects of Wal-Mart on Local Labor Markets," IZA Discussion Papers 2545, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Fredrik Andersson & Harry J. Holzer & Julia I. Lane, 2002. "The interactions of workers and firms in the low-wage labor market," Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics Technical Papers 2002-12, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- Garen, John, 1984. "The Returns to Schooling: A Selectivity Bias Approach with a Continuous Choice Variable," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(5), pages 1199-1218, September.
- Hicks, Michael J. & Wilburn, Kristy L., 2001. "The Regional Impact of Wal-Mart Entrance: A Panel Study of the Retail Trade Sector in West Virginia," The Review of Regional Studies, Southern Regional Science Association, vol. 31(3), pages 305-313, Winter.
- Michael J. Hicks & Kristy Wilburn, 2005. "The Locational Impact of Wal-Mart Entrance: A Panel Study of the Retail Trade Sector in West Virginia," Urban/Regional 0511011, EconWPA.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cdl:indrel:qt22s5k4pv. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lisa Schiff)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.