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Revisiting Wal-Mart's Impact on Iowa Small Town Retail: Twenty-Five Years Later

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  • Artz, Georgeanne M.
  • Stone, Kenneth E.

Abstract

Ken Stone conducted the first study of WalMart stores' economic impact in Iowa in 1988. Since then, research on WalMart's impacts has exploded. Recent studies employ sophisticated statistical techniques to more accurately measure the size and direction of effects. Many reach conclusions similar to Stone's original work. This article updates the original Stone study with additional years of data. It draws on recent methodological advances to help account for the effects of WalMart's strategic location decisions on estimated retail sales in Iowa. As is consistent with previous studies, we find that WalMart's entry into smaller trade centers in Iowa had a big initial impact on host-town retail sales, with some categories experiencing significant increases while others saw declines in sales per capita. WalMart's presence helped stabilize or even expand the local retail sector of most rural Iowa host communities. To conclude, we discuss policy implications for local economic development officials

Suggested Citation

  • Artz, Georgeanne M. & Stone, Kenneth E., 2012. "Revisiting Wal-Mart's Impact on Iowa Small Town Retail: Twenty-Five Years Later," Staff General Research Papers Archive 37646, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:isu:genres:37646
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Emek Basker, 2005. "Job Creation or Destruction? Labor Market Effects of Wal-Mart Expansion," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(1), pages 174-183, February.
    2. A. Smith, Jeffrey & E. Todd, Petra, 2005. "Does matching overcome LaLonde's critique of nonexperimental estimators?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 125(1-2), pages 305-353.
    3. Deller, Steven C. & McConnon, James Jr. C. & Stone, Kenneth E., 1991. "The Measurement of a Communityï¾’S Retail Market," Staff General Research Papers Archive 11229, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    4. Irwin, Elena G. & Clark, Jill, 2006. "Wall Street vs. Main Street: What are the Benefits and Costs of Wal-Mart to Local Communities?," Choices: The Magazine of Food, Farm, and Resource Issues, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 0(Issue 2), pages 1-6.
    5. Stone, Kenneth E., 1995. "Competing With the Retail Giants," Staff General Research Papers Archive 5307, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    6. Dube, Arindrajit & Lester, T. William & Eidlin, Barry, 2007. "Firm Entry and Wages: Impact of Wal-Mart Growth on Earnings Throughout the Retail Sector," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt22s5k4pv, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
    7. Georgeanne M. Artz & Kenneth E. Stone, 2006. "Analyzing the Impact of Wal-Mart Supercenters on Local Food Store Sales," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 88(5), pages 1296-1303.
    8. Ozment, John & Martin, Greg, 1990. "Changes in the competitive environments of rural trade areas : Effects of discount retail chains," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 277-287, November.
    9. Basker, Emek, 2011. "The Causes and Consequences of Wal-Mart’s Growth," Economic Policy, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, vol. 5, pages 110-134.
    10. Panle Jia, 2008. "What Happens When Wal-Mart Comes to Town: An Empirical Analysis of the Discount Retailing Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 76(6), pages 1263-1316, November.
    11. Stone, Kenneth E., 1991. "Competing with the Mass Merchandisers," Staff General Research Papers Archive 11230, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
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    1. repec:eee:joreco:v:40:y:2018:i:c:p:175-187 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    WalMart; retail; Iowa; Economic Development;

    JEL classification:

    • L81 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Retail and Wholesale Trade; e-Commerce
    • R - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics

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