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The Regional Impact of Wal-Mart Entrance: A Panel Study of the Retail Trade Sector in West Virginia

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  • Hicks, Michael J.

    (Marshall University, Huntington, West Virginia)

  • Wilburn, Kristy L.

    (Marshall University, Huntington, West Virginia)

Abstract

This paper examines the retail trade sector in 55 West Virginia counties from 1989 through 1998. A time-space recursive model evaluates the impact of the entrance of Wal-Mart stores in the county and in adjacent counties. This paper differs from earlier research in that it controls for endogeneity in the entrance decision of Wal-Mart in faster-growing counties, applies spatial analysis, and estimates impacts at the county level. This research finds a net increase in employment (55 jobs) and a mild increase in the number of firms (five) in the Retail Trade sector (SIC 52). The study supports the pull-factor explanation of retail trade growth. The paper concludes with further research recommendations.

Suggested Citation

  • Hicks, Michael J. & Wilburn, Kristy L., 2001. "The Regional Impact of Wal-Mart Entrance: A Panel Study of the Retail Trade Sector in West Virginia," The Review of Regional Studies, Southern Regional Science Association, vol. 31(3), pages 305-313, Winter.
  • Handle: RePEc:rre:publsh:v:31:y:2001:i:3:p:305-313
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Andrew W. Franklin, 2001. "The impact of Wal-Mart supercenters on supermarket concentration in U.S. metropolitan areas," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(1), pages 105-114.
    2. Barnes, Nora Ganim & Connell, Allison & Hermenegildo, Lisa & Mattson, Lucinda, 1996. "Regional differences in the economic impact of Wal-Mart," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 21-25.
    3. Stone, Kenneth E. & Deller, Steven C. & McConnon, James C. Jr., 1992. "The New Retail Environment in Maine," Staff General Research Papers Archive 11255, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    4. Ozment, John & Martin, Greg, 1990. "Changes in the competitive environments of rural trade areas : Effects of discount retail chains," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 277-287, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. Russell S. Sobel & Andrea M Dean, 2008. "Has Wal-Mart Buried Mom And Pop?: The Impact Of Wal-Mart On Self-Employment And Small Establishments In The United States," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 46(4), pages 676-695, October.
    2. Neumark, David & Zhang, Junfu & Ciccarella, Stephen, 2008. "The effects of Wal-Mart on local labor markets," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 405-430, March.
    3. Michael J. Hicks, 2014. "Do Good Fences Make Good Neighbors? The Cross Border Impact of Casino Entrance," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(1), pages 5-20, March.
    4. Michael J. Hicks, 2006. "Transportation and infrastructure, retail clustering, and local public finance: evidence from Wal-Mart's expansion," Regional Economic Development, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Oct, pages 100-114.
    5. Michael Hicks, 2007. "Wal-Mart’s Impact on Local Revenue and Expenditure Instruments in Ohio, 1988–2003," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 35(1), pages 77-95, March.
    6. whitney Oliver Peake & Maria I. Marshall, 2006. "What Do We Really Know About Entrepreneurs? An Analysis Of Nascent Entrepreneurs In Indiana," Working Papers 06-14, Purdue University, College of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics.
    7. Vandegrift, Donald & Loyer, John & Kababik, David, 2011. "The effect of Walmart on the tax base: evidence from New Jersey," MPRA Paper 30937, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Rudholm, Niklas & Li, Yuijao & Kenneth, Carling, 2018. "How Does Big-Box Entry Affect Labor Productivity in Durable Goods Retailing? A Synthetic Control Approach," HUI Working Papers 130, HUI Research.
    9. Stapp, Jacob, 2014. "The Walmart Effect: Labor Market Implications in Rural and Urban Counties," SS-AAEA Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    10. Srikanth Paruchuri & Joel A. C. Baum & David Potere, 2009. "The Wal-Mart Effect: Wave of Destruction or Creative Destruction?," Economic Geography, Clark University, vol. 85(2), pages 209-236, April.
    11. Peralta, Denis & Kim, Man-Keun, 2016. "Big-Box Retailers and Personal Income Growth in the U.S," 2016 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, 2016, Boston, Massachusetts 235216, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    12. Michael Hicks, 2015. "Does Wal-Mart Cause an Increase in Anti-Poverty Expenditures?," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 96(4), pages 1136-1152, December.
    13. Stater, Mark & Visser, Michael S., 2008. "Implications of Big Box Retail Location on Regional Profits, Consumer Utility, and Land Rents," The Review of Regional Studies, Southern Regional Science Association, vol. 38(1), pages 8-28.
    14. Donald Vandegrift & John Loyer, 2015. "The Effect Of Walmart And Target On The Tax Base: Evidence From New Jersey," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(2), pages 159-187, March.
    15. Michael J. Hicks, 2005. "Does Wal-Mart Cause an Increase in Anti-Poverty Program Expenditures?," Public Economics 0511015, EconWPA.
    16. Michael J. Hicks, 2007. "Job Turnover and Wages in the Retail Sector: The Influence of Wal-Mart," Journal of Private Enterprise, The Association of Private Enterprise Education, vol. 22(Spring 20), pages 137-160.
    17. Stephan J. Goetz & Hema Swaminathan, 2006. "Wal-Mart and County-Wide Poverty," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 87(2), pages 211-226.
    18. Dube, Arindrajit & Lester, T. William & Eidlin, Barry, 2007. "Firm Entry and Wages: Impact of Wal-Mart Growth on Earnings Throughout the Retail Sector," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt22s5k4pv, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
    19. Hicks, Michael J., 2009. "Wal-Mart and Small Business: Boon or Bane?," The Review of Regional Studies, Southern Regional Science Association, vol. 39(1), pages 73-83.
    20. Michael J. Hicks, 2005. "The Impact of Wal-Mart on Local Fiscal Health: Evidence from a Panel of Ohio Counties," Public Economics 0511016, EconWPA.
    21. Bonanno, Alessandro & Lopez, Rigoberto A., 2012. "Wal-Mart's monopsony power in metro and non-metro labor markets," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(4), pages 569-579.
    22. Volpe, Richard J., III & Lavoie, Nathalie, 2005. "The Effect of Wal-Mart Supercenters on Grocery Prices in New England," 2005 Annual meeting, July 24-27, Providence, RI 19188, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    23. Hicks, Michael J., 2007. "A Quasi-Experimental Test of Large Retail Store Impacts on Regional Labor Markets: The Case of Cabela's Retail Outlets," Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, Mid-Continent Regional Science Association, vol. 37(2).
    24. Donald Vandegrift, 2016. "The effect of Walmart and Target on property tax rates," Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 309-327, October.

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