IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

On gender and growth : the role of intergenerational health externalities and women's occupational constraints

  • Agenor, Pierre-Richard
  • Canuto, Otaviano
  • da Silva, Luiz Pereira

This paper studies the growth effects of externalities associated with intergenerational health transmission, health persistence, and women's occupational constraints-- with particular emphasis on the role of access to infrastructure. The first part provides a review of the evidence on these issues. The second and third parts present an overlapping generations model of endogenous growth that captures these interactions, and characterize its properties. The model is then used to perform several gender-based or gender-related experiments -- a reduction in the cost of child rearing, improved wage equality in the market place, and better access to infrastructure. The last part draws together the implications of the analysis for promoting the role of women in growth strategies.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 5492.

in new window

Date of creation: 01 Dec 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:5492
Contact details of provider: Postal:
1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433

Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Cavalcanti, Tiago & Tavares, José, 2006. "Women Prefer Larger Governments: Growth, Structural Transformation and Government Size," CEPR Discussion Papers 5667, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Elaine Liu & Ming-Jen Lin, 2013. "Does in Utero Exposure to Illness Matter? The 1918 Influenza Epidemic in Taiwan as a Natural Experiment," Working Papers 201310931, Department of Economics, University of Houston.
  3. Berta Esteve-Volart, 2004. "Gender discrimination and growth: theory and evidence from India," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 6641, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  4. Shang-Jin Wei & Xiaobo Zhang, 2011. "The Competitive Saving Motive: Evidence from Rising Sex Ratios and Savings Rates in China," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 119(3), pages 511 - 564.
  5. Arndt, Channing, 2006. "HIV/AIDS, human capital, and economic growth prospects for Mozambique," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 477-489, July.
  6. Blanden, Jo & Gregg, Paul & Macmillan, Lindsey, 2007. "Accounting for Intergenerational Income Persistence: Noncognitive Skills, Ability and Education," IZA Discussion Papers 2554, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. Cheolsung Park, 2007. "Marriage Market, Parents' Bargaining Powers, and Children's Nutrition and Education," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 69(6), pages 773-793, December.
  8. Pierre-Richard Agénor & Madina Agénor, 2014. "Infrastructure, women’s time allocation, and economic development," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 113(1), pages 1-30, September.
  9. DE LA CROIX, David & LICANDRO, Omar, 2007. "‘The child is father of the man’: implications for the demographic transition," CORE Discussion Papers 2007072, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  10. David E. Bloom & David Canning & Mark Weston, 2005. "The Value of Vaccination," World Economics, World Economics, Economic & Financial Publishing, 1 Ivory Square, Plantation Wharf, London, United Kingdom, SW11 3UE, vol. 6(3), pages 15-39, July.
  11. Pierre-Richard Agénor, 2005. "Schooling and Public Capital in a Model of Endogenous Growth," The School of Economics Discussion Paper Series 0538, Economics, The University of Manchester.
  12. Seema Jayachandran & Adriana Lleras-Muney, 2008. "Life Expectancy and Human Capital Investments: Evidence From Maternal Mortality Declines," NBER Working Papers 13947, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Bardasi, Elena & Wodon, Quentin, 2009. "Working long hours and having no choice : time poverty in Guinea," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4961, The World Bank.
  14. Raouf, BOUCEKKINE & Rodolphe, DESBORDES & Hélène, LATZER, 2008. "How do epidemics induce behavioral changes ?," Discussion Papers (ECON - Département des Sciences Economiques) 2008025, Université catholique de Louvain, Département des Sciences Economiques.
  15. Marc Klemp & Jacob Weisdorf, 2012. "The lasting damage to mortality of early-life adversity: evidence from the English famine of the late 1720s," European Review of Economic History, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(3), pages 233-246, August.
  16. Patricia Apps & Ray Rees, 2005. "Gender, Time Use and Public Policy Over the Life Cycle," CEPR Discussion Papers 500, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
  17. Sanjeev Gupta & Alvar Kangur & Abdoul A Wane & Chris Papageorgiou, 2011. "Efficiency-Adjusted Public Capital and Growth," IMF Working Papers 11/217, International Monetary Fund.
  18. Oded Galor & David N. Weil, 1993. "The Gender Gap, Fertility, and Growth," NBER Working Papers 4550, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Fabio Mariani & Agustin Perez Barahona & Natacha Raffin, 2010. "Life expectancy and the environment," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-00638730, HAL.
  20. Helmers, Christian & Patnam, Manasa, 2011. "The formation and evolution of childhood skill acquisition: Evidence from India," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 252-266, July.
  21. repec:gdm:wpaper:2507 is not listed on IDEAS
  22. Emanuele Baldacci & Larry Q Cui & Benedict J. Clements & Sanjeev Gupta, 2004. "Social Spending, Human Capital, and Growth in Developing Countries; Implications for Achieving the MDGs," IMF Working Papers 04/217, International Monetary Fund.
  23. Schultz, T. Paul, 2005. "Productive Benefits of Health: Evidence from Low-Income Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 1482, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  24. Eric Hanushek & Ludger Woessmann, 2008. "The Role of Cognitive Skills in Economic Development," Discussion Papers 07-034, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
  25. Paxson, Christina & Schady, Norbert, 2007. "Does money matter ? The effects of cash transfers on child health and development in rural Ecuador," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4226, The World Bank.
  26. Ehrlich, Isaac & Lui, Francis T, 1991. "Intergenerational Trade, Longevity, and Economic Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(5), pages 1029-59, October.
  27. Edward Lazear, 1983. "Intergenerational Externalities," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 16(2), pages 212-28, May.
  28. Tiago V. de V. Cavalcanti & José Tavares, 2008. "Assessing the "Engines of Liberation": Home Appliances and Female Labor Force Participation," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(1), pages 81-88, February.
  29. Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan, 2012. "AIDS, “reversal” of the demographic transition and economic development: evidence from Africa," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 25(3), pages 871-897, July.
  30. Greenwood,J. & Seshadri,A. & Yorukoglu,M., 2002. "Engines of liberation," Working papers 1, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
  31. David de la Croix & Marie Vander Donckt, 2010. "Would Empowering Women Initiate the Demographic Transition in Least Developed Countries?," Journal of Human Capital, University of Chicago Press, vol. 4(2), pages 85-129.
  32. Christina Paxson & Norbert Schady, 2010. "Does Money Matter? The Effects of Cash Transfers on Child Development in Rural Ecuador," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(1), pages 187-229, October.
  33. Qingyuan Du & Shang-Jin Wei, 2010. "A Sexually Unbalanced Model of Current Account Imbalances," NBER Working Papers 16000, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  34. Leif Andreassen, 2004. "Mortality, fertility and old age care in a two-sex growth model," Discussion Papers 378, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
  35. David Bloom & David Canning & Günther Fink & Jocelyn Finlay, 2009. "Fertility, female labor force participation, and the demographic dividend," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 14(2), pages 79-101, June.
  36. Jeremy Greenwood & Ananth Seshadri, 2002. "Technological Progress and Economic Transformation," Economie d'Avant Garde Research Reports 3, Economie d'Avant Garde.
  37. Suzanne Duryea & Sebastián Galiani & Claudia Piras & Hugo R. Ñopo, 2007. "The Educational Gender Gap in Latin America and the Caribbean," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 6721, Inter-American Development Bank.
  38. Ampaabeng, Samuel K. & Tan, Chih Ming, 2013. "The long-term cognitive consequences of early childhood malnutrition: The case of famine in Ghana," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1013-1027.
  39. Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Maluccio, John A., 2000. "Intrahousehold allocation and gender relations," FCND briefs 84, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  40. Del Boca, Daniela & Locatelli, Marilena, 2006. "The Determinants of Motherhood and Work Status: A Survey," IZA Discussion Papers 2414, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  41. Agénor, Pierre-Richard, 2010. "A theory of infrastructure-led development," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 932-950, May.
  42. Lee, Lung-fei & Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Pitt, Mark M., 1997. "The effects of improved nutrition, sanitation, and water quality on child health in high-mortality populations," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 209-235, March.
  43. Steven Lugauer & Alexis Leon & Daniele Coen-Pirani, 2008. "The Effect of Household Appliances on Female Labor Force Participation: Evidence from Micro Data," 2008 Meeting Papers 541, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  44. Paul Glewwe, 1999. "Why Does Mother's Schooling Raise Child Health in Developing Countries? Evidence from Morocco," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 34(1), pages 124-159.
  45. McDonald, Scott & Roberts, Jennifer, 2006. "AIDS and economic growth: A human capital approach," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 228-250, June.
  46. Janet Currie, 2008. "Healthy, Wealthy, and Wise: Socioeconomic Status, Poor Health in Childhood, and Human Capital Development," NBER Working Papers 13987, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  47. James P. Smith, 2009. "The Impact of Childhood Health on Adult Labor Market Outcomes," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 91(3), pages 478-489, August.
  48. Giovanna d’Adda & Markus Goldstein & Joshua Zivin & Mabel Nangami & Harsha Thirumurthy, 2009. "ARV Treatment and Time Allocation to Household Tasks: Evidence from Kenya," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 21(1), pages 180-208.
  49. Venkataramani, Atheendar S., 2012. "Early life exposure to malaria and cognition in adulthood: Evidence from Mexico," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 767-780.
  50. Clive Bell & Shantayanan Devarajan & Hans Gersbach, 2006. "The Long-Run Economic Costs of aids: A Model with an Application to South Africa," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 20(1), pages 55-89.
  51. Gayatri Koolwal & Dominique van de Walle, 2013. "Access to Water, Women's Work, and Child Outcomes," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 61(2), pages 369 - 405.
  52. Case, Anne & Fertig, Angela & Paxson, Christina, 2005. "The lasting impact of childhood health and circumstance," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 365-389, March.
  53. Momota, Michiko, 2000. "The gender gap, fertility, subsidies and growth," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 69(3), pages 401-405, December.
  54. Atolia, Manoj & Chatterjee, Santanu & Turnovsky, Stephen J., 2010. "How misleading is linearization? Evaluating the dynamics of the neoclassical growth model," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 1550-1571, September.
  55. John Anyanwu & Andrew E. O. Erhijakpor, 2009. "Health Expenditures and Health Outcomes in Africa," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 21(2), pages 400-433.
  56. Janet Currie, 2011. "Inequality at Birth: Some Causes and Consequences," NBER Working Papers 16798, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  57. Zhang, Junsen & Zhang, Jie & Li, Tianyou, 1999. "Gender bias and economic development in an endogenous growth model," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 497-525, August.
  58. Lourdes Diaz Olvera & Didier Plat & Pascal Pochet, 2008. "Household transport expenditure in Sub-Saharan African cities: measurement and analysis," Post-Print halshs-00264231, HAL.
  59. Hong, Sok Chul, 2013. "Malaria: An early indicator of later disease and work level," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 612-632.
  60. Kimmel, Jean & Connelly, Rachel, 2006. "Is Mothers' Time With Their Children Home Production or Leisure?," IZA Discussion Papers 2058, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  61. Masako Kimura & Daishin Yasui, 2010. "The Galor–Weil gender-gap model revisited: from home to market," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 15(4), pages 323-351, December.
  62. Naoko C. Kojo & Arye L. Hillman & Emanuele Baldacci, 2003. "Growth, Governance, and Fiscal Policy Transmission Channels in Low-Income Countries," IMF Working Papers 03/237, International Monetary Fund.
  63. Sok Chul Hong, 2011. "Malaria: An Early Indicator of Later Disease and Work Level," Working Papers 1110, Research Institute for Market Economy, Sogang University.
  64. Blackden, Mark & Canagarajah, Sudharshan & Klasen, Stephan & Lawson, David, 2006. "Gender and Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: Issues and Evidence," Working Paper Series RP2006/37, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  65. Jie Zhang & Junsen Zhang, 2005. "The Effect of Life Expectancy on Fertility, Saving, Schooling and Economic Growth: Theory and Evidence," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 107(1), pages 45-66, 03.
  66. Erica Field & Omar Robles & Maximo Torero, 2009. "Iodine Deficiency and Schooling Attainment in Tanzania," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 1(4), pages 140-69, October.
  67. Karine S. Moe, 1998. "Fertility, Time Use, and Economic Development," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 1(3), pages 699-718, July.
  68. Osang, Thomas & Sarkar, Jayanta, 2008. "Endogenous mortality, human capital and economic growth," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 1423-1445, December.
  69. Schrage, Andrea, 2007. "Low Fertility of Highly Educated Women: The Impact of Child Care Infrastructure," University of Regensburg Working Papers in Business, Economics and Management Information Systems 421, University of Regensburg, Department of Economics.
  70. Glomm, Gerhard & Ravikumar, B., 1994. "Public investment in infrastructure in a simple growth model," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 1173-1187, November.
  71. Hugo Ñopo & Nancy Daza & Johanna Ramos, 2012. "Gender earning gaps around the world: a study of 64 countries," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 33(5), pages 464-513, March.
  72. C. Mark Blackden, 1999. "Gender, Growth, and Poverty Reduction," World Bank Other Operational Studies 9873, The World Bank.
  73. Almond, Douglas & Currie, Janet, 2011. "Human Capital Development before Age Five," Handbook of Labor Economics, Elsevier.
  74. Sajal Lahiri & Sharmistha Self, 2007. "Gender Bias in Education: the Role of Inter-household Externality, Dowry and other Social Institutions," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 11(4), pages 591-606, November.
  75. Corrigan, Paul & Glomm, Gerhard & Mendez, Fabio, 2005. "AIDS crisis and growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 107-124, June.
  76. Kevane, Michael & Wydick, Bruce, 2001. "Social Norms and the Time Allocation of Women's Labor in Burkina Faso," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(1), pages 119-29, February.
  77. Adam Wagstaff & Mariam Claeson, 2004. "The Millennium Development Goals for Health : Rising to the Challenges," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 14954.
  78. John A. Maluccio & John Hoddinott & Jere R. Behrman & Reynaldo Martorell & Agnes R. Quisumbing & Aryeh D. Stein, 2009. "The Impact of Improving Nutrition During Early Childhood on Education among Guatemalan Adults," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(537), pages 734-763, 04.
  79. McGuire, James W., 2006. "Basic health care provision and under-5 mortality: A Cross-National study of developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 405-425, March.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:5492. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.