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Gender equality, poverty and economic growth


  • Morrison, Andrew
  • Raju, Dhushyanth
  • Sinha, Nistha


This paper reviews empirical findings from economic analyses of the role of gender equality and women's empowerment in reducing poverty and stimulating growth. Going beyond the large literature documenting the impact of female education on a range of development outcomes, the paper presents evidence on the impact of women's access to markets (labor, land, and credit) and women's decision-making power within households on poverty reduction and productivity at the individual and household level. The paper also summarizes evidence from studies examining the relationship between gender equality and poverty reduction and growth at the macro level. Although micro level effects of gender equality on individual productivity and human development outcomes have been well documented and have important ramifications for aggregate economic performance, establishing an empirical relationship between gender equality and poverty reduction and growth at the macro level has proven to be more challenging. The paper concludes by identifying priority areas for future research.

Suggested Citation

  • Morrison, Andrew & Raju, Dhushyanth & Sinha, Nistha, 2007. "Gender equality, poverty and economic growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4349, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4349

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Fisher, Anthony C, 1973. "Environmental Externalities and the Arrow-Lind Public Investment Theorem," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(4), pages 722-725, September.
    2. Gurenko, Eugene & Lester, Rodney, 2004. "Rapid onset natural disasters : The role of financing in effective risk management," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3278, The World Bank.
    3. Ricardo J. Caballero, 2003. "The Future of the IMF," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(2), pages 31-38, May.
    4. John C. Cox & Jonathan E. Ingersoll Jr. & Stephen A. Ross, 2005. "A Theory Of The Term Structure Of Interest Rates," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Theory Of Valuation, chapter 5, pages 129-164 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    5. Christian Gollier, 2003. "To Insure or Not to Insure?: An Insurance Puzzle," The Geneva Risk and Insurance Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Association for the Study of Insurance Economics (The Geneva Association), vol. 28(1), pages 5-24, June.
    6. Ghesquiere, Francis & Jamin, Luis & Mahul, Olivier, 2006. "Earthquake vulnerability reduction program in Colombia : a probabilistic cost-benefit analysis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3939, The World Bank.
    7. Tobias N. Rasmussen, 2004. "Macroeconomic Implications of Natural Disasters in the Caribbean," IMF Working Papers 04/224, International Monetary Fund.
    8. David J Hofman & Patricia A Brukoff, 2006. "Insuring Public Finances Against Natural Disasters; A Survey of Options and Recent Initiatives," IMF Working Papers 06/199, International Monetary Fund.
    9. Gurenko, Eugene & Mahul, Olivier, 2003. "Combining insurance, contingent debt, and self-retention in an optimal corporate risk financing strategy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3167, The World Bank.
    10. Gardner, Roy, 1979. "The Arrow-Lind Theorem in a Continuum Economy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(3), pages 420-422, June.
    11. Mahul, Olivier & Gurenko, Eugene, 2006. "The macro financing of natural hazards in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4075, The World Bank.
    12. Arrow, Kenneth J & Lind, Robert C, 1970. "Uncertainty and the Evaluation of Public Investment Decisions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 60(3), pages 364-378, June.
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    Blog mentions

    As found by, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. Quels liens entre inégalités de genre et croissance ?
      by ? in D'un champ l'autre on 2015-01-24 23:25:00


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    Cited by:

    1. Protap Kumar Ghosh & Sutap Kumar Ghosh, 2017. "Gender Disparity in Functionality and Consequence of Microfinance: Does it Function Currently?," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 7(2), pages 164-174, February.
    2. Stimpfle, Alexander & Stadelmann, David, 2016. "Marriage Age Affects Educational Gender Inequality: International Evidence," Annual Conference 2016 (Augsburg): Demographic Change 145492, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    3. repec:rss:jnljse:v3i4p2 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Elizabeth M. King & Vy T. Nguyen, 2013. "Intersecting sources of education inequality," Chapters,in: Handbook of Research on Gender and Economic Life, chapter 26, pages 421-433 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    5. Kiprotich Sigei, Geoffrey, 2014. "Determinants of Market Participation Among Small-Scale Pineapple Farmers in Kericho County, Kenya," Research Theses 243452, Collaborative Masters Program in Agricultural and Applied Economics.
    6. Janneke Plantenga, 2015. "The economics of gender equality; a review of the literature in three propositions and two questions," WWWforEurope Working Papers series 104, WWWforEurope.
    7. repec:asi:aeafrj:2017:p:1075-1092 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    Access to Finance; Population Policies; Gender and Law; Gender and Development; Rural Development Knowledge&Information Systems;

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