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Access to water, women's work and child outcomes

Author

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  • Koolwal, Gayatri
  • van de Walle, Dominique

Abstract

Poor rural women in the developing world spend considerable time collecting water. How then do they respond to improved access to water infrastructure? Does it increase their participation in income earning market-based activities? Does it improve the health and education outcomes of their children? To help address these questions, a new approach for dealing with the endogeneity of infrastructure placement in cross-sectional surveysis proposed and implemented using data for nine developing countries. The paper does not find that access to water comes with greater off-farm work for women, although in countries where substantial gender gaps in schooling exist, both boys'and girls'enrollments improve with better access to water. There are also some signs of impacts on child health as measured by anthropometric z-scores.

Suggested Citation

  • Koolwal, Gayatri & van de Walle, Dominique, 2010. "Access to water, women's work and child outcomes," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5302, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:5302
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Taryn Dinkelman, 2011. "The Effects of Rural Electrification on Employment: New Evidence from South Africa," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(7), pages 3078-3108, December.
    2. C. Mark Blackden & Quentin Wodon, 2006. "Gender, Time Use, and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7214, July.
    3. Ellis, Frank, 2000. "Rural Livelihoods and Diversity in Developing Countries," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198296966.
    4. Ravallion, Martin, 2007. ""Achieving Child-Health-Related Millennium Development Goals: The Role of Infrastructure"--A Comment," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 920-928, May.
    5. Mangyo, Eiji, 2008. "The effect of water accessibility on child health in China," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(5), pages 1343-1356, September.
    6. Frank Ellis, 2000. "The Determinants of Rural Livelihood Diversification in Developing Countries," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(2), pages 289-302.
    7. Kuiper, Marijke H. & Meijerink, Gerdien W. & Eaton, Derek J.F., 2006. "Rural Livelihoods: Interplay Between Farm Activities, Non-farm Activities and the Resource Base," 2006 Annual Meeting, August 12-18, 2006, Queensland, Australia 25442, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    8. Blackden, Mark & Wodon, Quentin, 2006. "Gender, Time Use, and Poverty: Introduction," MPRA Paper 11080, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    1. repec:eee:wdevel:v:104:y:2018:i:c:p:1-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. repec:eee:wdevel:v:97:y:2017:i:c:p:153-164 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. repec:pal:eurjdr:v:30:y:2018:i:2:d:10.1057_s41287-017-0079-2 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Smith, Jo U. & Fischer, Anke & Hallett, Paul D. & Homans, Hilary Y. & Smith, Pete & Abdul-Salam, Yakubu & Emmerling, Hanna H. & Phimister, Euan, 2015. "Sustainable use of organic resources for bioenergy, food and water provision in rural Sub-Saharan Africa," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 903-917.
    5. Céline Nauges & Jon Strand, 2017. "Water Hauling and Girls’ School Attendance: Some New Evidence from Ghana," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 66(1), pages 65-88, January.
    6. Agénor, Pierre-Richard & Canuto, Otaviano & da Silva, Luiz Pereira, 2014. "On gender and growth: The role of intergenerational health externalities and women's occupational constraints," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 132-147.
    7. Usman, Muhammed Abdella & Gerber, Nicolas & von Braun, Joachim, 2016. "The Impact of Drinking Water Quality and Sanitation Behavior on Child Health: Evidence from Rural Ethiopia," Discussion Papers 241764, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Gender; Water Supply and Sanitation; Rural Labor Markets; Rural Water Supply and Sanitation; Access&Equity in Basic Education; Early Child and Children's Health;

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