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Is Mothers' Time With Their Children Home Production or Leisure?

  • Kimmel, Jean

    ()

    (Western Michigan University)

  • Connelly, Rachel

    ()

    (Bowdoin College)

As mothers have increased their paid work efforts, conflicts between employment and family responsibilities have grown. This evolution has led researchers to explore more fully the role that caregiving responsibilities play in mothers’ time choices. We study this issue using data from the 2003 American Time Use Survey. We estimate a simultaneous four-equation system in which the dependent variables are the number of minutes in a mother’s diary day that she devotes to home production, leisure, market work, and caregiving. The first goal of this estimation is to determine if time spent with children responds to prices and demographics more like home production time or leisure. The second goal is to glean a better understanding of the importance that marital status, race, and other demographic factors play in time choices, once economic factors are controlled. Our final goal is to improve upon the existing time use literature by estimating a structural time use model that produces explicit estimates of wage and child care price elasticities. Our results show that mothers’ time with their children does not respond to price or demographic changes much like home production or leisure and that, somewhat surprisingly, the caregiving choice responds most like paid labor particularly in the response to higher wages.

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Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 2058.

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Length: 51 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2006
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: Journal of Human Resources, 2007, 42(3), 643-81
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2058
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  1. Victoria Prowse, 2004. "Estimating Time Demand Elasticities Under Rationing," Economics Papers 2004-W22, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
  2. Reuben Gronau, 1976. "Leisure, Home Production and Work--The Theory of The Allocation of Time Revisited," NBER Working Papers 0137, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Graham, John W & Green, Carole A, 1984. "Estimating the Parameters of a Household Production Function with Joint Products," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 66(2), pages 277-82, May.
  4. Ribar, D.C., 1993. "A Structural Model of Child Care and the Labor Supply of Married Women," Papers 5-93-1, Pennsylvania State - Department of Economics.
  5. Apps, Patricia & Rees, Ray, 2000. "Household Production, Full Consumption and the Costs of Children," IZA Discussion Papers 157, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Apps, Patricia, 2003. "Gender, Time Use and Models of the Household," IZA Discussion Papers 796, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. Daniel Hallberg & Anders Klevmarken, 2003. "Time for children: A study of parent's time allocation," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 16(2), pages 205-226, 05.
  8. Charlene M. Kalenkoski & David C. Ribar & Leslie S. Stratton, 2006. "Parental Child Care in Single Parent, Cohabiting, and Married Couple Families: Time Diary Evidence from the United States and the United Kingdom," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_440, Levy Economics Institute.
  9. Rachel Connelly & Jean Kimmel, 2003. "The Effect of Child Care Costs on the Employment and Welfare Recipiency of Single Mothers," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 69(3), pages 498-519, January.
  10. Charlene M. Kalenkoski & David C. Ribar & Leslie S. Stratton, 2005. "Parental Child Care in Single-Parent, Cohabiting, and Married-Couple Families: Time-Diary Evidence from the United Kingdom," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(2), pages 194-198, May.
  11. Ribar, D.C., 1990. "Child Care And The Labor Supply Of Married Women: Reducted Form Evidence," Papers 9-90-9, Pennsylvania State - Department of Economics.
  12. Hamermesh, Daniel S. & Lee, Jungmin, 2005. "Stressed Out on Four Continents: Time Crunch or Yuppie Kvetch?," IZA Discussion Papers 1815, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  13. Kooreman, P. & Kapteyn, A.J., 1984. "A disaggregated analysis of the allocation of time within the household," Research Memorandum FEW 153, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
  14. Reuben Gronau & Daniel S. Hamermesh, 2006. "Time Vs. Goods: The Value Of Measuring Household Production Technologies," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 52(1), pages 1-16, 03.
  15. Patricia F. Apps & Ray Rees, 1999. "Individual versus Joint Taxation in Models with Household Production," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(2), pages 393-403, April.
  16. Nancy Folbre & Jayoung Yoon & Kade Finnoff & Allison Fuligni, 2005. "By what measure? family time devoted to children in the united states," Demography, Springer, vol. 42(2), pages 373-390, May.
  17. Peter Howie & John Wicks & John Fitzgerald & Douglas Dalenberg & Rachel Connelly, 2006. "Mothers' time spent in care of their children and market work: a simultaneous model with attitudes as instruments," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(8), pages 503-506.
  18. Mroz, Thomas A, 1987. "The Sensitivity of an Empirical Model of Married Women's Hours of Work to Economic and Statistical Assumptions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(4), pages 765-99, July.
  19. Jongsoog Kim & Lydia Zepeda, 2004. "When The Work Is Never Done: Time Allocation In Us Family Farm Households," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(1), pages 115-139.
  20. Daniel S. Hamermesh & Harley Frazis & Jay Stewart, 2005. "Data Watch: The American Time Use Survey," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 19(1), pages 221-232, Winter.
  21. Klevmarken, N. Anders, 2004. "Estimates of a Labour Supply Function Using Alternative Measures of Hours of Work," IZA Discussion Papers 1035, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  22. Rachel Connelly & Jean Kimmel, 2003. "Marital status and full-time/part-time work status in child care choices," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(7), pages 761-777.
  23. Connelly, Rachel & DeGraff, Deborah S & Levison, Deborah, 1996. "Women's Employment and Child Care in Brazil," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 44(3), pages 619-56, April.
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