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Gender, Time Use and Models of the Household

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  • Patricia Apps

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to explain why time use data are essential for analyzing issues of gender equity and the intra-household allocation of resources, for comparing living standards and for estimating the behavioral effects of changes in policy variables. The first step in the exposition is to show that the neglect of these data in much of the literature on household behavior, in both developed and developing economies, can be traced to unrealistic assumptions on domestic production and the mistaken idea that non-market time can be viewed as leisure. It is argued that an approach is required that makes explicit the need for data on the time family members spend on domestic work as well as on labor supply. An approach of this kind is outlined and used to identify the specialized assumptions that are employed when they are missing. The paper also discusses the limitations of available time use survey datasets that are due to deficiencies in survey design. The more serious and common problems are illustrated using as case studies the Statistics South Africa 2000 Time Use Survey and the time use module included in the Nicaraguan 1998 Living Standards Measurements Survey.

Suggested Citation

  • Patricia Apps, 2003. "Gender, Time Use and Models of the Household," CEPR Discussion Papers 464, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
  • Handle: RePEc:auu:dpaper:464
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    File URL: https://www.cbe.anu.edu.au/researchpapers/cepr/DP464.pdf
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    Cited by:

    1. Chang, Hongqin & Dong, Xiao-yuan & MacPhail, Fiona, 2011. "Labor Migration and Time Use Patterns of the Left-behind Children and Elderly in Rural China," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 2199-2210.
    2. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/9664 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Hans G. Bloemen & Silvia Pasqua & Elena G. F. Stancanelli, 2008. "An Empirical Analysis Of The Time Allocation Of Italian Couples: Are Italian Men Irresponsive?," CHILD Working Papers wp18_08, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY.
    4. Elena Stancanelli, 2007. "Marriage and Work: an analysis for French couples in the last decade," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2007-10, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
    5. Olivier Bargain & Miriam Beblo & Denis Beninger & Richard Blundell & Raquel Carrasco & Maria-Concetta Chiuri & François Laisney & Valérie Lechene & Nicolas Moreau & Michal Myck & Javier Ruiz-Castillo , 2006. "Does the Representation of Household Behavior Matter for Welfare Analysis of Tax-benefit Policies? An Introduction," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 4(2), pages 99-111, June.
    6. Frederic Vermeulen & Olivier Bargain & Miriam Beblo & Denis Beninger & Richard Blundell & Raquel Carrasco & Maria-Concetta Chiuri & François Laisney & Valérie Lechene & Nicolas Moreau & Michal Myck & , 2006. "Collective Models of Labor Supply with Nonconvex Budget Sets and Nonparticipation: A Calibration Approach," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 4(2), pages 113-127, June.
    7. Christos Koulovatianos & Carsten Schröder & Ulrich Schmidt, 2005. "Non-Market Time and Household Well-Being," Vienna Economics Papers 0507, University of Vienna, Department of Economics.
    8. Hans Bloemen & Elena Stancanelli, 2008. "How Do Parents Allocate Time? The Effects of Wages and Income," Sciences Po publications 3679, Sciences Po.
    9. Quentin Wodon & Elena Bardasi, 2006. "Measuring Time Poverty and Analyzing its Determinants: Concepts and Application to Guinea," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 10(12), pages 1-7.
    10. Almudena Sevilla-Sanz, 2005. "Social Effects, Household Time Allocation, and the Decline in Union Formation: Working Paper 2005-07," Working Papers 16517, Congressional Budget Office.
    11. Elena Bardasi & Quentin Wodon, 2010. "Working Long Hours and Having No Choice: Time Poverty in Guinea," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(3), pages 45-78.
    12. Mauro Mastrogiacomo & Nicole Bosch, 2006. "Income incentives to labour participation and home production; the contribution of the tax credits in the Netherlands," CPB Discussion Paper 59, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    13. Martin Browning & Mette Gørtz, 2012. "Spending Time and Money within the Household," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 114(3), pages 681-704, September.
    14. Nicoleta Caragea-Hrehorciuc, 2008. "The work in Romania : an analysis of the macroeconomic perspective," Revista Economica, Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Faculty of Economic Sciences, vol. 42(5-6), pages 117-126.
    15. Koulovatianos, Christos & Schrder, Carsten & Schmidt, Ulrich, 2009. "Nonmarket Household Time and the Cost of Children," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 27, pages 42-51.
    16. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:10:y:2006:i:12:p:1-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Ezequiel Uriel & Javier Ferri & Maria Luisa Molto, 2005. "Estimation of an Extended SAM with household production for Spain 1995," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(3), pages 255-278.
    18. Rana Hendy & Catherine Sofer, 2010. "A Collective Model of Female Labor Supply : Do Distribution Factors Matter in the Egyptian Case ?," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00482492, HAL.
    19. Hans G. Bloemen & Elena G. F. Stancanelli, 2008. "How do spouses allocate time : the effects of wages and income," THEMA Working Papers 2008-40, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
    20. James, Estelle & Edwards, Alejandra Cox & Wong, Rebecca, 2003. "The gender impact of pension reform : a cross-country analysis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3074, The World Bank.
    21. Kimmel, Jean & Connelly, Rachel, 2006. "Is Mothers' Time With Their Children Home Production or Leisure?," IZA Discussion Papers 2058, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    22. Nakahara, Shinji & Poudel, Krishna C. & Lopchan, Milan & Poudel, Om Raj & Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana & Ichikawa, Masao, 2010. "Differential effects of out-of-home day care in improving child nutrition and augmenting maternal income among those with and without childcare support: A prospective before-after comparison study in ," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 97(1), pages 16-25, September.
    23. Viktor Steiner & Katharina Wrohlich, 2006. "Die Wirkung ausgewählter familienpolitischer Instrumente auf das Arbeitsangebot von Eltern: Expertise für den Familienbericht der Bundesregierung," DIW Berlin: Politikberatung kompakt, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, volume 16, number pbk16, November.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    time allocation and labor supply; gender; household production; development;

    JEL classification:

    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • J82 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Standards - - - Labor Force Composition
    • D13 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Production and Intrahouse Allocation
    • O17 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements

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