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Child care and women's labor force participation in Romania

Author

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  • Monica Fong
  • Lokshin, Michael

Abstract

The authors model the household demand for child care, the mother's participation in the labor force, and her working hours in Romania. Their model estimates the effects of the price of child care, the mother's wage, and household income on household behavior relating to child care and mothers working outside the home. They find that: Both the maternal decision to take a job and the decision to use out-of-home care are sensitive to the price of child care. A decrease in the price of child care can increase the number of mothers who work and thus reduce poverty in some households. The potential market wage of the mother has a significant positive effect on the decision to purchase market care and the decision to engage in paid employment. The level of household nonwage income has little effect on maternal employment and the demand for child care. In addition to facilitating women's work, kindergartens and cr?hes appear to provide educational and social benefits for children. Close to half the children in these facilities have mothers who do not work. Further research is needed to assess the cost and nature of these benefits and to determine the appropriate roles for the private and public sectors in providing, financing, and regulating such services for working and nonworking mothers.

Suggested Citation

  • Monica Fong & Lokshin, Michael, 2000. "Child care and women's labor force participation in Romania," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2400, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2400
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    3. James J. Heckman, 1974. "Effects of Child-Care Programs on Women's Work Effort," NBER Chapters,in: Marriage, Family, Human Capital, and Fertility, pages 136-169 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    5. Kimmel, Jean, 1995. "The Effectiveness of Child-Care Subsidies in Encouraging the Welfare-to-Work Transition of Low-Income Single Mothers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(2), pages 271-275, May.
    6. Wong, Rebeca & Levine, Ruth E, 1992. "The Effect of Household Structure on Women's Economic Activity and Fertility: Evidence from Recent Mothers in Urban Mexico," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 41(1), pages 89-102, October.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Victoria Levin & Ana Maria Munoz Boudet & Beth Zikronah Rosen & Tami Aritomi & Julianna Flanagan & Lourdes Rodriguez-Chamussy, 2015. "Why Should We Care about Care?," World Bank Other Operational Studies 29545, The World Bank.
    2. Zamo-Akono, C. & Tsafack-Nanfosso, R., 2008. "Fécondité, Santé et Participation des femmes au Marché du Travail," MPRA Paper 10839, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Lina Cardona-Sosa & Leonardo Morales, 2015. "Efectos laborales de los servicios de cuidado infantil: evidencia del programa Buen Comienzo," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 012787, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
    4. Lokshin, Michael M. & Glinskaya, Elena & Garcia, Marito, 2000. "The effect of early childhood development programs on women's labor force participation and older children's schooling in Kenya," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2376, The World Bank.
    5. Elena Bardasi & Chiara Monfardini, 2004. "Women's Employment, Children and Transition: An Empirical Analysis on Poland," Eastward Enlargement of the Euro-zone Working Papers wp25, Free University Berlin, Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence, revised 15 Oct 2004.
    6. Krzysztof Karbownik & Michal Myck, 2012. "For Some Mothers More than Others: How Children Matter for Labour Market Outcomes When Both Fertility and Female Employment Are Low," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1208, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    7. World Bank, 2016. "Georgia Country Gender Assessment," World Bank Other Operational Studies 26091, The World Bank.
    8. Colm Harmon & Claire Finn & Arnaud Chevalier & Tarja Viitanen, 2006. "The economics of early childhood care and education : technical research paper for the National Economic and Social Forum," Open Access publications 10197/671, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
    9. Apps, Patricia, 2003. "Gender, Time Use and Models of the Household," IZA Discussion Papers 796, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    10. Todd, Petra E., 2012. "Effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving women's employability and quality of work : a critical review," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6189, The World Bank.
    11. L.Guarcello & B.Henschel & S.Lyon & F.Rosati & C. Valdivia, 2006. "Child Labour in the Latin America and Carribean Region: a Gender Based Analisys," UCW Working Paper 17, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).

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