The effect of early childhood development programs on women's labor force participation and older children's schooling in Kenya
About 20,000 early childhood development centers provided day care for and prepared for primary school more than 1 million children aged three to seven (roughly 20 percent of children in that age group) in Kenya in 1995. The number of child care facilities reached 23,690 by the end of 1999. The authors analyze the effect of child care costs on households'behavior in Kenya. For households with children aged three to seven, they model household demand for mothers'participation in paid work, the participation in paid work of other household members, household demand for schooling, and household demand for child care. They find that: A) A high cost for child care discourages households from using formal child care facilities and has a negative effect on mothers'participation in market work. B) The cost of child care and the level of mothers'wages affect older children's school enrollment, but these factors affect boys'and girls'schooling differently. An increase in mothers'wages increases boys'enrollment but depresses girls'enrollment. C) Higher child care costs have no significant effect on boys'schooling but significantly decrease the number of girls in school.
|Date of creation:||30 Jun 2000|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433|
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Mincer, Jacob & Polachek, Solomon, 1974.
"Family Investment in Human Capital: Earnings of Women,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(2), pages 76-108, Part II, .
- Jacob Mincer & Solomon Polacheck, 1974. "Family Investments in Human Capital: Earnings of Women," NBER Chapters,in: Economics of the Family: Marriage, Children, and Human Capital, pages 397-431 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jacob Mincer & Solomon Polachek, 1974. "Family Investments in Human Capital: Earnings of Women," NBER Chapters,in: Marriage, Family, Human Capital, and Fertility, pages 76-110 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Blau, David M & Robins, Philip K, 1988. "Child-Care Costs and Family Labor Supply," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 70(3), pages 374-381, August.
- Michael Lokshin, 2004. "Household Childcare Choices and Women’s Work Behavior in Russia," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 39(4).
- Lokshin, Michael M., 1999. "Household childcare choices and women's work behavior in Russia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2206, The World Bank.
- Connelly, Rachel & DeGraff, Deborah S & Levison, Deborah, 1996. "Women's Employment and Child Care in Brazil," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 44(3), pages 619-656, April.
- Monica Fong & Lokshin, Michael, 2000. "Child care and women's labor force participation in Romania," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2400, The World Bank.
- Lawrence H. Summers, 1992. "Investing in All the People," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 31(4), pages 367-404.
- Summers, Lawrence H., 1992. "Investing in all the people," Policy Research Working Paper Series 905, The World Bank.
- David M. Blau & Alison P. Hagy, 1998. "The Demand for Quality in Child Care," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(1), pages 104-146, February.
- Wong, Rebeca & Levine, Ruth E, 1992. "The Effect of Household Structure on Women's Economic Activity and Fertility: Evidence from Recent Mothers in Urban Mexico," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 41(1), pages 89-102, October.
- Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.