IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

The effect of early childhood development programs on women's labor force participation and older children's schooling in Kenya

  • Lokshin, Michael M.
  • Glinskaya, Elena
  • Garcia, Marito

About 20,000 early childhood development centers provided day care for and prepared for primary school more than 1 million children aged three to seven (roughly 20 percent of children in that age group) in Kenya in 1995. The number of child care facilities reached 23,690 by the end of 1999. The authors analyze the effect of child care costs on households'behavior in Kenya. For households with children aged three to seven, they model household demand for mothers'participation in paid work, the participation in paid work of other household members, household demand for schooling, and household demand for child care. They find that: A) A high cost for child care discourages households from using formal child care facilities and has a negative effect on mothers'participation in market work. B) The cost of child care and the level of mothers'wages affect older children's school enrollment, but these factors affect boys'and girls'schooling differently. An increase in mothers'wages increases boys'enrollment but depresses girls'enrollment. C) Higher child care costs have no significant effect on boys'schooling but significantly decrease the number of girls in school.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2376.

in new window

Date of creation: 30 Jun 2000
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2376
Contact details of provider: Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Jacob Mincer & Solomon Polachek, 1974. "Family Investments in Human Capital: Earnings of Women," NBER Chapters, in: Marriage, Family, Human Capital, and Fertility, pages 76-110 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Lokshin, Michael M., 1999. "Household childcare choices and women's work behavior in Russia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2206, The World Bank.
  3. Lawrence H. Summers, 1992. "Investing in All the People," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 31(4), pages 367-404.
  4. Heckman, James J, 1979. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
  5. Monica Fong & Lokshin, Michael, 2000. "Child care and women's labor force participation in Romania," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2400, The World Bank.
  6. Blau, David M & Robins, Philip K, 1988. "Child-Care Costs and Family Labor Supply," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 70(3), pages 374-81, August.
  7. Wong, Rebeca & Levine, Ruth E, 1992. "The Effect of Household Structure on Women's Economic Activity and Fertility: Evidence from Recent Mothers in Urban Mexico," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 41(1), pages 89-102, October.
  8. David M. Blau & Alison P. Hagy, 1998. "The Demand for Quality in Child Care," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(1), pages 104-146, February.
  9. Connelly, Rachel & DeGraff, Deborah S & Levison, Deborah, 1996. "Women's Employment and Child Care in Brazil," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 44(3), pages 619-56, April.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2376. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.