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Investing in all the people

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  • Summers, Lawrence H.

Abstract

Recent research has convinced the author that once all the benefits are recognized, investment in the education of girls may be the highest return of investment available in the developing world. The author stresses five major points: (1) higher death rates are symptomatic of the more general pattern of female deprivation in the developing world; (2) underinvestment in girls is an economic problem resulting from a vicious cycle caused by distorted incentives; (3) educated women choose to have fewer children and can provide more for those they do have; (4) the social benefits alone of increased female education are more than sufficient to cover its costs; and (5) priorities should be to reduce the cost of schooling for girls and make special efforts to accommodate parent's practical needs. Major initiatives to increase female education can transform society over time. If more girls had gone to school a generation ago, millions of infant deaths could have been averted each year, and tens of millions of families could have been healthier and happier.

Suggested Citation

  • Summers, Lawrence H., 1992. "Investing in all the people," Policy Research Working Paper Series 905, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:905
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Yoram Ben-Porath & Finis Welch, 1976. "Do Sex Preferences Really Matter?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 90(2), pages 285-307.
    2. M. Ali Khan, 1992. "On Measuring the Social Opportunity Cost of Labour in the Presence of Tariffs and an Informal Sector," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 31(4), pages 535-564.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Akhtar Hasan Khan, 1997. "Education in Pakistan: Fifty Years of Neglect," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(4), pages 647-667.
    2. Barro, Robert J. & Lee, Jong-Wha, 1993. "International comparisons of educational attainment," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 363-394, December.
    3. Mundle, Sudipto, 1998. "Financing human development: Some lessons from advanced Asian countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 659-672, April.
    4. Abu-Ghaida, Dina & Klasen, Stephan, 2004. "The Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(7), pages 1075-1107, July.
    5. Marcel Fafchamps & Agnes R. Quisumbing, 1999. "Human Capital, Productivity, and Labor Allocation in Rural Pakistan," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 34(2), pages 369-406.
    6. Jere R. Behrman & Andrew D. Foster & Mark R. Rosenzweig & Prem Vashishtha, 1999. "Women's Schooling, Home Teaching, and Economic Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(4), pages 682-714, August.
    7. Bloom, David E. & Canning, David & Sevilla, Jaypee, 2004. "The Effect of Health on Economic Growth: A Production Function Approach," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 1-13, January.
    8. Yasuyuki Sawada, 1997. "Human Capital Investments in Pakistan: Implications of Micro Evidence from Rural Households," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(4), pages 695-712.
    9. World Bank, 2005. "Pakistan : Country Gender Assessment, Bridging the Gender Gap, Opportunities and Challenges," World Bank Other Operational Studies 8453, The World Bank.
    10. Mingat, Alain, 1998. "The strategy used by high-performing Asian economies in education: Some lessons for developing countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 695-715, April.
    11. Behrman, Jere R., 1999. "Schooling in Asia: Selected microevidence on determinants, effects, and policy implications," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 147-194.
    12. Alderman, Harold & Behrman, Jere R. & Khan, Shahrukh & Ross, David R. & Sabot, Richard, 1996. "Decomposing the regional gap in cognitive skills in rural Pakistan," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 49-76.
    13. Alderman, Harold & Headey, Derek D., 2017. "How Important is Parental Education for Child Nutrition?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 448-464.
    14. Lokshin, Michael M. & Glinskaya, Elena & Garcia, Marito, 2000. "The effect of early childhood development programs on women's labor force participation and older children's schooling in Kenya," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2376, The World Bank.
    15. Mansuri, Ghazala, 2006. "Migration,sex bias, and child growth in rural Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3946, The World Bank.
    16. Anand, Sudhir & Sen, Amartya, 2000. "Human Development and Economic Sustainability," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(12), pages 2029-2049, December.
    17. Frédéric Docquier & B. Lindsay Lowell & Abdeslam Marfouk, 2009. "A Gendered Assessment of Highly Skilled Emigration," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 35(2), pages 297-321.
    18. Björkman, Martina, 2006. "Income Shocks and Gender Gaps in Education: Evidence from Uganda," Seminar Papers 744, Stockholm University, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    19. Mansuri, Ghazala, 2006. "Migration, school attainment, and child labor : evidence from rural Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3945, The World Bank.
    20. Pritchett, Lant H. & DEC, 1994. "Desired fertility and the impact of population policies," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1273, The World Bank.
    21. Ali Khan, M., 2004. "Composite photography and statistical prejudice: Levy-Peart and Marshall on the theorist and the theorized," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 23-30, March.

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