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Efectos laborales de los servicios de cuidado infantil: evidencia del programa Buen Comienzo

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Abstract

Este artículo evalúa el efecto de los centros de cuidado infantil sobre la participación laboral y la empleabilidad de madres de menores de cinco años. Con este fin, se analiza la provisión pública de los centros de cuidado provistos por el Gobierno de la ciudad de Medellín a través de su programa de atención integral a la primera infancia, Buen Comienzo. En la llamada modalidad institucional, Buen Comienzo atiende sin costo alguno durante ocho horas diarias y cinco días a la semana a niños y niñas menores de cinco años de edad. Este servicio reduce el costo que representa para las madres el cuidado infantil, el cual influye en la asignación de su tiempo entre el mercado de trabajo y el hogar. El menor costo genera un efecto sustitución positivo entre trabajo y ocio a favor de la decisión de trabajar. Para estimar la magnitud del efecto, se utilizan dos metodologías no experimentales, la de emparejamiento o matching y la de variables instrumentales. Con la primera se estima el efecto promedio y con la segunda el efecto local del programa. Los resultados sugieren que la modalidad de cuidado infantil del programa Buen Comienzo ha incrementado en promedio entre tres y nueve puntos porcentuales (o entre 10% y 27%), la probabilidad que tienen las madres con hijos menores de participar en el mercado de trabajo. Para las madres ubicadas cerca de los centros de cuidado el efecto es mayor, o de 31 puntos porcentuales, que equivale a duplicar su probabilidad de participar en el mercado laboral. En materia de empleabilidad, sin embargo, el efecto es mínimo. Classification JEL: J13, J18, J20, C26

Suggested Citation

  • Lina Cardona-Sosa & Leonardo Morales, 2015. "Efectos laborales de los servicios de cuidado infantil: evidencia del programa Buen Comienzo," Borradores de Economia 882, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  • Handle: RePEc:bdr:borrec:882
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Keywords

    oferta laboral femenina; oferta de cuidado infantil; variables instrumentales; emparejamiento o matching.;

    JEL classification:

    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J18 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Public Policy
    • J20 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - General
    • C26 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation

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