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The Educational Gender Gap in Latin America and the Caribbean

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Listed:
  • Suzanne Duryea
  • Sebastian Galiani
  • Hugo Ñopo

    ()

  • Claudia Piras

Abstract

This paper analyzes the evolution of gender differences in school attendance and attainment in Latin America and the Caribbean, for both adults who left the educational system and children in school. For individuals 21 years old and above the paper uses a cohort analysis of school attainment. The results indicate that the schooling gap has closed for the cohort born at the end of the 1960s. Since then, the gap has reversed such that within the cohort born in 1980, females have, on average, ¼ of a schooling year more than males. During the four decades of birth cohorts of our analysis (1940-1980) the gender gap in attainment has moved in favor of females at a pace of 0. 27 years of schooling per decade. A decomposition exercise suggests that the changes in the schooling gap are mainly explained by the educational attainment of females at the higher levels, rather than improvements in the early years of education. An analysis of attendance and attainment among girls and boys between 6 and 18, for Bolivia, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru (the countries that have not closed the gap in adult schooling attainment) reveals noticeable gender differences, favoring boys, only among older children of the lowest income quintiles and indigenous ethnicity.

Suggested Citation

  • Suzanne Duryea & Sebastian Galiani & Hugo Ñopo & Claudia Piras, 2007. "The Educational Gender Gap in Latin America and the Caribbean," Research Department Publications 4510, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:4510
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Psacharopoulos, George, 1994. "Returns to investment in education: A global update," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 22(9), pages 1325-1343, September.
    2. Schultz, T Paul, 1973. "A Preliminary Survey of Economic Analyses of Fertility," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(2), pages 71-78, May.
    3. Strauss, John & Thomas, Duncan, 1995. "Human resources: Empirical modeling of household and family decisions," Handbook of Development Economics,in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 34, pages 1883-2023 Elsevier.
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    5. Psacharopoulos, George & Tzannatos, Zafiris, 1992. "Latin American women's earnings and participation in the labor force," Policy Research Working Paper Series 856, The World Bank.
    6. Suzanne Duryea & Jere R. Behrman & Miguel Székely, 1999. "Schooling Investments and Macroeconomic Conditions: A Micro-Macro Investigation for Latin America and the Caribbean," Research Department Publications 4184, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    7. Behrman, Jere R. & Deolalikar, Anil B., 1988. "Health and nutrition," Handbook of Development Economics,in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 14, pages 631-711 Elsevier.
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    Blog mentions

    As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. Entre fomentar el crecimiento poblacional y disminuir la brecha de género
      by Rosario Queirolo in Razones y personas: repensando Uruguay on 2012-08-16 19:45:00
    2. Are women with a high educational level the exception?
      by Elena Arias Ortiz in La educación de calidad es posible on 2018-03-08 16:56:24
    3. ¿Son las mujeres con alto nivel educativo la excepción?
      by Elena Arias Ortiz in La educación de calidad es posible on 2018-03-08 18:06:10
    4. Are women with a high educational level the exception?
      by Elena Arias Ortiz in La educación de calidad es posible on 2018-03-08 18:11:52

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Hugo Ñopo & Alberto Gonzales, 2008. "Gender and Ethnic Wage Gaps in Guatemala from a Matching Comparisons Perspective," Research Department Publications 4587, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    2. Juan Sebastián Muñoz, 2014. "Re-estimating the Gender Gap in Colombian Academic Performance," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 4762, Inter-American Development Bank.
    3. de Brauw, Alan & Gilligan, Daniel O. & Hoddinott, John & Roy, Shalini, 2015. "The Impact of Bolsa Família on Schooling," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 303-316.
    4. Florencia Lopez-Boo, 2008. "How Do Crises Affect Schooling Decisions? Evidence from Changing Labor Market Opportunities and a Policy Experiment," Research Department Publications 4602, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    5. Eduardo Lora & Hugo Ñopo, 2009. "La Formación de los Economistas en America Latina," Revista de Analisis Economico – Economic Analysis Review, Ilades-Georgetown University, Universidad Alberto Hurtado/School of Economics and Bussines, vol. 24(2), pages 65-93, Diciembre.
    6. repec:idb:idbbks:238 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Ganguli, Ina & Hausmann, Ricardo & Viarengo, Martina, 2011. "Closing the Gender Gap in Education: Does It Foretell the Closing of the Employment, Marriage, and Motherhood Gaps?," Working Paper Series rwp11-021, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
    8. Paula Herrera-Idárraga & Enrique López-Bazo & Elisabet Motellón, 2012. "Informality and overeducation in the labor market of a developing country," Working Papers XREAP2012-20, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised Nov 2012.
    9. Agénor, Pierre-Richard & Canuto, Otaviano & da Silva, Luiz Pereira, 2014. "On gender and growth: The role of intergenerational health externalities and women's occupational constraints," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 132-147.
    10. Hugo Ñopo & Alberto Gonzales, 2008. "Brechas salariales por género y etnicidad en Guatemala desde una perspectiva de comparaciones emparejadas," Research Department Publications 4588, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    11. Juan Pablo Atal & Hugo R. Ñopo & Natalia Winder, 2009. "New Century, Old Disparities: Gender and Ethnic Wage Gaps in Latin America," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 1131, Inter-American Development Bank.
    12. Sebastián Calónico & Hugo R. Ñopo, 2008. "Gender Segregation in the Workplace and Wage Gaps: Evidence from Urban Mexico 1994-2004," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 1621, Inter-American Development Bank.
    13. Sebastian Calonico & Hugo Ñopo, 2008. "Segregación de genero en el trabajo y diferenciales de salario: Evidencia de las zonas urbanas de Mexico 1994-2004," Research Department Publications 4580, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    14. World Bank, 2011. "Work and Family : Latin American and Caribbean Women in Search of a New Balance
      [Trabajo & familia : mujeres de América Latina y el Caribe en busca de un nuevo equilibrio - Resumen ejecuivo (Vol. 2
      ," World Bank Other Operational Studies 12489, The World Bank.
    15. Raymundo M. Campos Vázquez & Alma S. Santillán Hernández, 2016. "Análisis de diferencias en puntajes en la prueba ENLACE entre niños y niñas en el sistema escolar mexicano," Estudios Económicos, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Económicos, vol. 31(1), pages 65-123.
    16. Hugo Nopo & Natalia Winder, 2008. "Etnicidad y acumulación de capital humano en México Urbano," Research Department Publications 4620, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    17. Amanda N. Ellis & María Beatriz Orlando & Ana Maria Muñoz Boudet & Claudia Piras & Maira Reimao & Jozefina Cutura & Judith Frickenstein & Ane Perez & Orsi de Castro, 2010. "Women's Economic Opportunities in the Formal Private Sector in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Focus on Entrepreneurship," IDB Publications (Books), Inter-American Development Bank, number 17078, February.
    18. World Bank & Observatoire National de la Pauvreté et de l’Exclusion Sociale, 2014. "Investing in People to Fight Poverty in Haiti : Reflections for Evidence-based Policy Making
      [Haïti - Investir dans l’humain pour combattre la pauvreté : Éléments de réflexions pour la prise de déc
      ," World Bank Other Operational Studies 21519, The World Bank.

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