Latin American women's earnings and participation in the labor force
Using historical census data and the latest household surveys, the authors investigate changes in female employment in Latin America, the factors that determine women's participation in the labor force, and the reasons for the gap between men's and women's earnings. The authors find, to their surprise, that despite worsened economic conditions since the 1970s, women's participation in the labor force has increased significantly since the 1950s. One explanation may be that women benefitted disproportionately from expansion of the public sector. The factors that have most affected women's decisions to join the work force have been education and family conditions. Creating opportunities for women's education and employment when such factors are absent will improve efficiency and reduce poverty. Other policy based factors that can affect women's participation in the work force include the availability of family planning services and child-care facilities. Women's participation in the labor force can also be affected by improving family law and tax regulations that create hardships for women, especially in the Caribbean. In all of the countries studied, women are rewarded less than men and gender differences in human capital endowments account for an average of about a third of the observed difference in earnings - prima facie evidence of discrimination. On the other hand, women appear to be rewarded more proportionate to their human capital endowments than men are.
|Date of creation:||29 Feb 1992|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433|
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- George Psacharopoulos, 1985. "Returns to Education: A Further International Update and Implications," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 20(4), pages 583-604.
- Joshi, Heather E & Layard, Richard & Owen, Susan J, 1985. "Why Are More Women Working in Britain?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages 147-176, January.
- Peters, H Elizabeth, 1986. "Marriage and Divorce: Informational Constraints and Private Contracting," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(3), pages 437-454, June.
- Nakamura, Masao & Nakamura, Alice & Cullen, Dallas, 1979. "Job Opportunities, the Offered Wage, and the Labor Supply of Married Women," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(5), pages 787-805, December.
- Schultz, T.P., 1990. "Returns To Women'S Education," Papers 603, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Dougherty, Christopher R. S. & Jimenez, Emmanuel, 1991. "The specification of earnings functions: Tests and implications," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 85-98, June.
- Oswald, Andrew J, 1985. " The Economic Theory of Trade Unions: An Introductory Survey," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 87(2), pages 160-193.
- Psacharopoulos, George & Tzannatos, Zafiris, 1989. "Female Labor Force Participation: An International Perspective," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 4(2), pages 187-201, July.
- Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
- Bowers, J K, 1975. "British Activity Rates: A Survey of Research," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 22(1), pages 57-90, February.
- De Tray, Dennis N, 1973. "Child Quality and the Demand for Children," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(2), pages 70-95, Part II, .
- Gunderson, Morley, 1989. "Male-Female Wage Differentials and Policy Responses," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 27(1), pages 46-72, March.
- Becker, Gary S & Landes, Elisabeth M & Michael, Robert T, 1977. "An Economic Analysis of Marital Instability," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 85(6), pages 1141-1187, December.
- Miller, Paul W, 1987. "The Wage Effect of the Occupational Segregation of Women in Britain," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 97(388), pages 885-896, December.
- Ehrenberg, Ronald G. & Schwarz, Joshua L., 1987.
"Public-sector labor markets,"
Handbook of Labor Economics,in: O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 22, pages 1219-1260
- Ronald G. Ehrenberg & Joshua L. Schwarz, 1983. "Public Sector Labor Markets," NBER Working Papers 1179, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Sahn, David E. & Alderman, Harold, 1988. "The effects of human capital on wages, and the determinants of labor supply in a developing country," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 157-183, September.
- George Psacharopoulos & Richard Layard, 1979. "Human Capital and Earnings: British Evidence and a Critique," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 46(3), pages 485-503.
- Schultz, T Paul, 1990. "Women's Changing Participation in the Labor Force: A World Perspective," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 38(3), pages 457-488, April.
- Schultz, T.P., 1989. "Women'S Changing Participation In The Labor Force: A World Perspective," Papers 571, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Schultz, T. Paul, 1989. "Women's changing participation in the labor force : a world perspective," Policy Research Working Paper Series 272, The World Bank.
- Blau, David M & Behrman, Jere R & Wolfe, Barbara L, 1988. "Schooling and Earnings Distributions with Endogenous Labour Force Participation, Marital Status and Family Size," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 55(219), pages 297-316, August.
- Colclough, Christopher, 1982. "The impact of primary schooling on economic development: a review of the evidence," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 167-185, March.
- Wright, Robert E & Ermisch, John F, 1991. "Gender Discrimination in the British Labour Market: A Reassessment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(406), pages 508-522, May.
- Ermisch, John F & Wright, Robert E, 1988. "Gender Discrimination in the British Labour Market: A Reassessment," CEPR Discussion Papers 278, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Shahrukh Rafi Khan & Mohammad Irfan, 1985. "Rates of Returns to Education and the Determinants of Earnings in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 24(3-4), pages 671-683.
- Khandker, Shahidur R, 1988. "Determinants of Women's Time Allocation in Rural Bangladesh," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 37(1), pages 111-126, October.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Wolpin, Kenneth I., 1982. "Governmental interventions and household behavior in a developing country : Anticipating the unanticipated consequences of social programs," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 209-225, April.
- Rosen, Sherwin, 1969. "On the Interindustry Wage and Hours Structure," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 77(2), pages 249-273, March/Apr.
- Adelman, Irma, 1975. "Development Economics-A Reassessment of Goals," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 65(2), pages 302-309, May.
- Leibowitz, Arleen, 1974. "Home Investments in Children," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(2), pages 111-131, Part II, .
- Behrman, Jere R & Wolfe, Barbara L & Blau, David M, 1985. "Human Capital and Earnings Distribution in a Developing Country: The Case of Prerevolutionary Nicaragua," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 34(1), pages 1-29, October. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)