IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

New Century, Old Disparities: Gender and Ethnic Wage Gaps in Latin America

  • Nopo, Hugo R.

    ()

    (GRADE)

  • Atal, Juan Pablo

    ()

    (Inter-American Development Bank)

  • Winder, Natalia

    (Inter-American Development Bank)

This paper surveys gender and ethnic wage gaps in 18 Latin American countries, decomposing differences using matching comparisons as a non-parametric alternative to the Blinder-Oaxaca (BO) decomposition. It is found that men earn 9-27 percent more than women, with high cross-country heterogeneity. The unexplained pay gap is higher among older, informal and self-employed workers and those in small firms. Ethnic wage differences are greater than gender differences, and educational attainment differentials play an important role in explaining the gap. Higher ethnic wage gaps are found among males, single-income generators of households and full-time workers, and in rural areas. An important share of the ethnic wage gap is due to the scarcity of minorities in high-paid positions.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://ftp.iza.org/dp5085.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 5085.

as
in new window

Length: 74 pages
Date of creation: Jul 2010
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: 'New Century, Old Disparities. Gender and Ethnic Earnings Gaps in Latin America and the Caribbean', World Bank Publications, 2012
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5085
Contact details of provider: Postal:
IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany

Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org

Order Information: Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Email:


References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Wendy Cunningham & Joyce P. Jacobsen, 2003. "Earnings Inequality Within and Across Gender, Racial, and Ethnic Groups in Latin America," Wesleyan Economics Working Papers 2003-001, Wesleyan University, Department of Economics.
  2. Marianne Bertrand & Erzo F. P. Luttmer & Sendhil Mullainathan, 1999. "Network Effects and Welfare Cultures," Working Papers 9903, Harris School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago.
  3. Manuel Barrón, 2006. "Exclusion and discrimination as sources of inter-ethnic inequality in Peru," Documentos de Trabajo / Working Papers 2006-253, Departamento de Economía - Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.
  4. Doris Weichselbaumer & Rudolf Winter-Ebmer, 2003. "A meta-analysis of the international gender wage gap," Economics working papers 2003-11, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
  5. Barsky R. & Bound J. & Charles K.K. & Lupton J.P., 2002. "Accounting for the Black-White Wealth Gap: A Nonparametric Approach," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 97, pages 663-673, September.
  6. Tam, Tony, 1996. "Reducing the gender gap in an asian economy: How important is women's increasing work experience?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(5), pages 831-844, May.
  7. Angrist, Joshua D & Evans, William N, 1998. "Children and Their Parents' Labor Supply: Evidence from Exogenous Variation in Family Size," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 450-77, June.
  8. Douglas Marcouiller, S.J. & Veronica Ruiz de Castilla & Christopher Woodruff, 1995. "Formal Measures of the Informal Sector Wage Gap in Mexico, El Salvador, and Peru," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 294., Boston College Department of Economics.
  9. Jean-Louis Arcand & Béatrice D'hombres, 2004. "Racial discrimination in the Brazilian labour market: wage, employment and segregation effects," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(8), pages 1053-1066.
  10. Sageeta Pratap & Erwan Quintin, 2002. "Are Labor Markets Segmented in Argentina? A Semiparametric Approach," Working Papers 0202, Centro de Investigacion Economica, ITAM.
  11. Harry Anthony Patrinos & Emmanuel Skoufias, 2007. "Economic Opportunities for Indigenous Peoples in Latin America : Conference Edition," World Bank Other Operational Studies 8019, The World Bank.
  12. Birdsall, Nancy & Fox, M Louise, 1985. "Why Males Earn More: Location and Training of Brazilian Schoolteachers," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(3), pages 533-56, April.
  13. Cruces, Guillermo & Galiani, Sebastian, 2007. "Fertility and female labor supply in Latin America: New causal evidence," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 565-573, June.
  14. Omar Arias & Gustavo Yamada & Luis Tejerina, 2002. "Education, Family Background and Racial Earnings Inequality in Brazil," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 80308, Inter-American Development Bank.
  15. Jorge M. Aguero & Mindy S. Marks, 2008. "Motherhood and Female Labor Force Participation: Evidence from Infertility Shocks," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(2), pages 500-504, May.
  16. Diego F. ANGEL URDINOLA & Quentin WODON, 2003. "The gender wage Gap and poverty in Colombia," ARCHIVOS DE ECONOMÍA 003596, DEPARTAMENTO NACIONAL DE PLANEACIÓN.
  17. Psacharopoulos, George, 1992. "Ethnicity, education, and earnings in Bolivia and Guatemala," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1014, The World Bank.
  18. Hotchkiss, Julie L & Moore, Robert E, 1996. "Gender Compensation Differentials in Jamaica," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 44(3), pages 657-76, April.
  19. Sookram, Sandra & Strobl, Eric, 2008. "The Role of Educational Choice in Occupational Gender Segregation: Evidence from Trinidad and Tobago," IZA Discussion Papers 3549, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  20. Funkhouser, Edward, 1997. "Mobility and Labor Market Segmentation: The Urban Labor Market in El Salvador," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 46(1), pages 123-53, October.
  21. Garcia-Aracil, Adela & Winter, Carolyn, 2006. "Gender and ethnicity differentials in school attainment and labor market earnings in Ecuador," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 289-307, February.
  22. Hugo Nopo & Jaime Saavedra & Maximo Torero, 2004. "Ethnicity and Earnings in Urban Peru," Middlebury College Working Paper Series 0405, Middlebury College, Department of Economics.
  23. David Bravo & Claudia Sanhueza & Sergio Urzua, 2008. "An Experimental Study of Labor Market Discrimination: Gender, Social Class and Neighborhood in Chile," Research Department Publications 3242, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  24. Psacharopoulos, George & Tzannatos, Zafiris, 1992. "Latin American women's earnings and participation in the labor force," Policy Research Working Paper Series 856, The World Bank.
  25. Barrientos, Armando, 2002. "Women, Informal Employment, and Social Protection in Latin America," General Discussion Papers 30557, University of Manchester, Institute for Development Policy and Management (IDPM).
  26. Raquel Bernal & Mauricio Cárdenas Santa María, 2005. "Race and ethnic inequality in health and health care in Colombia," WORKING PAPERS SERIES. DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO 003413, FEDESARROLLO.
  27. James J. Heckman & Lance J. Lochner & Petra E. Todd, 2003. "Fifty Years of Mincer Earnings Regressions," NBER Working Papers 9732, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  28. Jenkins, Stephen P., 1994. "Earnings discrimination measurement : A distributional approach," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 81-102, March.
  29. Yun, Myeong-Su, 2003. "Decomposing Differences in the First Moment," IZA Discussion Papers 877, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  30. Stephen G. Donald & David A. Green & Harry J. Paarsch, 2000. "Differences in Wage Distributions Between Canada and the United States: An Application of a Flexible Estimator of Distribution Functions in the Presence of Covariates," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 67(4), pages 609-633.
  31. Suzanne Duryea & Sebastián Galiani & Claudia Piras & Hugo R. Ñopo, 2007. "The Educational Gender Gap in Latin America and the Caribbean," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 6721, Inter-American Development Bank.
  32. Alejandra Cox & Judith Roberts, 1993. "Macroeconomic influences on female labor force participation: the Latin American evidence," Estudios de Economia, University of Chile, Department of Economics, vol. 20(esp Year ), pages 87-106, june.
  33. repec:idb:brikps:79462 is not listed on IDEAS
  34. Panizza, Ugo & Qiang, Christine Zhen-Wei, 2005. "Public-private wage differential and gender gap in Latin America: Spoiled bureaucrats and exploited women?," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 810-833, December.
  35. Scorzafave, Luiz Guilherme & Pazello, Elaine Toldo, 2007. "Using normalized equations to solve the indetermination problem in the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition: an application to the gender wage gap in Brazil," Revista Brasileira de Economia, FGV/EPGE Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil), vol. 61(4).
  36. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
  37. Gurleen Popli, 2008. "Gender wage discrimination in Mexico: A distributional approach," Working Papers 2008006, The University of Sheffield, Department of Economics, revised Apr 2008.
  38. Hansen, Jörgen & Wahlberg, Roger, 1999. "Endogenous Schooling and the Distribution of the Gender Wage Gap," IZA Discussion Papers 78, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  39. Chiswick, Barry R & Patrinos, Harry Anthony & Hurst, Michael E, 2000. "Indigenous Language Skills and the Labor Market in a Developing Economy: Bolivia," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 48(2), pages 349-67, January.
  40. G. Reza Arabsheibani & Francisco Galrao Carneiro & Andrew Henley, 2003. "Gender wage differentials in Brazil : trends over a turbulent era," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3148, The World Bank.
  41. Patrinos, Harry Anthony, 1997. "Differences in education and earnings across ethnic groups in Guatemala," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 809-821.
  42. Juhn, Chinhui & Murphy, Kevin M & Pierce, Brooks, 1993. "Wage Inequality and the Rise in Returns to Skill," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(3), pages 410-42, June.
  43. Campante, Filipe R. & Crespo, Anna R. V. & Leite, Phillippe G. P. G., 2004. "Desigualdade Salarial entre Raças no Mercado de Trabalho Urbano Brasileiro: Aspectos Regionais," Revista Brasileira de Economia, FGV/EPGE Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil), vol. 58(2), April.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5085. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.