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Ethnicity and Earnings in Urban Peru

  • Hugo Nopo

    ()

  • Jaime Saavedra
  • Maximo Torero

In this paper we study the relationship between ethnic exclusion and earnings in Urban Peru. Our approach to the concept of ethnicity involves the usage of instruments in many of its several dimensions: mother tongue, parental background, religion, migration events and race. In order to approximate what can be called racial differences in a context like the Peruvian in which "racial mixture" is the main characteristic of the population, we use a score-based procedure to capture both the differences and the mixtures. By means of this procedure each individual is assigned intensities by pollsters in each of the four categories that correspond to the most easily recognized distinct racial groups in the Peruvian society: Asiatic, White, Indigenous, and Black. We find that the multidimensional race indicator is correlated with several human capital and physical capital assets, as well as with access to public services. Using Blinder-Oaxaca (B-O) decompositions we find that a substantial part of the earnings differences between racial groups cannot be explainged by differences in individual characteristics. To take into account the fact that B-O doesn't consider the probability distribution of the individual characteristics, and specifically race in our case, we also use a semi-parametric technique for the estimation of differences in hourly earnings. This estimation treats the typical wage equations in a linear fashion but let estimators for the racial intensity effects to interact freely, without restricting them to a functional form. The results suggests that among wage earners after controlling for a large set of characteristics, there are racially related earnings differences in favor of predominantly White individuals. In the case of the self-employed, none of the empirical distributions of earning differences attributable to race is substantially above zero.

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File URL: http://www.middlebury.edu/services/econ/repec/mdl/ancoec/0405.pdf
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Paper provided by Middlebury College, Department of Economics in its series Middlebury College Working Paper Series with number 0405.

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Length: 35 pages
Date of creation: Jan 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:mdl:mdlpap:0405
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  1. Edward Telles & Nelson Lim, 1998. "Does it matter who answers the race question? Racial classification and income inequality in Brazil," Demography, Springer, vol. 35(4), pages 465-474, November.
  2. William A. Darity & Patrick L. Mason, 1998. "Evidence on Discrimination in Employment: Codes of Color, Codes of Gender," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(2), pages 63-90, Spring.
  3. Oaxaca, Ronald L. & Ransom, Michael R., 1994. "On discrimination and the decomposition of wage differentials," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 5-21, March.
  4. Chiswick, Barry R, 1988. "Differences in Education and Earnings across Racial and Ethnic Groups: Tastes, Discrimination, and Investments in Child Quality," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 103(3), pages 571-97, August.
  5. DiNardo, John & Fortin, Nicole M & Lemieux, Thomas, 1996. "Labor Market Institutions and the Distribution of Wages, 1973-1992: A Semiparametric Approach," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(5), pages 1001-44, September.
  6. Scalera, Domenico & Zazzaro, Alberto, 2001. "Group reputation and persistent (or permanent) discrimination in credit markets," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 11(4-5), pages 483-496, December.
  7. Hugo Nopo, 2003. "Matching as a Tool to Decompose Wage Gaps," Middlebury College Working Paper Series 0406, Middlebury College, Department of Economics.
  8. Barsky R. & Bound J. & Charles K.K. & Lupton J.P., 2002. "Accounting for the Black-White Wealth Gap: A Nonparametric Approach," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 97, pages 663-673, September.
  9. Becker, Gary S., 1971. "The Economics of Discrimination," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 2, number 9780226041162, October.
  10. Hugo Nopo, 2009. "The Gender Wage Gap in Peru 1986-2000: Evidence from a Matching Comparisons Approach," Research Department Publications 4618, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  11. Ruthanne Deutsch & Andrew Morrison & Hugo Nopo & Claudia Piras, 2005. "Working Within Confines: Occupational Segregation By Sex For Three Latin American Countries," The IUP Journal of Applied Economics, IUP Publications, vol. 0(3), pages 50-59, May.
  12. Hugo R. Ñopo, 2009. "The Gender Wage Gap in Peru 1986-2000: Evidence from a Matching Comparisons Approach," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 6763, Inter-American Development Bank.
  13. Robinson, Peter M, 1988. "Root- N-Consistent Semiparametric Regression," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(4), pages 931-54, July.
  14. Horowitz, Joel L., 2001. "The Bootstrap," Handbook of Econometrics, in: J.J. Heckman & E.E. Leamer (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 5, chapter 52, pages 3159-3228 Elsevier.
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