The U-Shaped Female Labor Force Function in Economic Development and Economic History
The labor force participation rate of married women first declines and then rises as countries develop. Its þ-shape is revealed both across the process of economic development and through the histories of currently advanced countries. The initial decline in the participation rate is due to the movement of production from the household, family farm, and small business to the wider market, and to a strong income effect. But the income effect weakens and the substitution effect strengthens at some point. This paper explores why the change takes place and why the þ-shape is traced out. When women are poorly educated their only wage labor outside the home and family is in manual work, against which a strong social stigma exists. But when women are educated, particularly at the secondary level, they enter white-collar work, against which no social stigma exists. Data for more than one-hundred countries and for United States history are used to explore the hypothesis of the þ-shaped female labor force function.
|Date of creation:||Apr 1994|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published as T. Paul Schultz, ed., Investment in Women's Human Capital and Economic Development, University of Chicago Press, 1995.|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Gronau, Reuben, 1977.
"Leisure, Home Production, and Work-The Theory of the Allocation of Time Revisited,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 85(6), pages 1099-1123, December.
- Reuben Gronau, 1976. "Leisure, Home Production and Work--The Theory of The Allocation of Time Revisited," NBER Working Papers 0137, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Duncan Thomas, 1990.
"Intra-Household Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(4), pages 635-664.
- Thomas, D., 1989. "Intra-Household Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach," Papers 586, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Robert J. Barro & Jong-Wha Lee, 1993.
"International Comparisons of Educational Attainment,"
NBER Working Papers
4349, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Barro, Robert J. & Lee, Jong-Wha, 1993. "International comparisons of educational attainment," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 363-394, December.
- Miller, Barbara D, 1982. "Female Labor Participation and Female Seclusion in Rural India: A Regional View," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 30(4), pages 777-94, July.
- Norris, Mary E., 1992. "The impact of development on women : A specific-factors analysis," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 183-201, January.
- Schultz, T.P., 1991. "International Differences in Labor Force Participation in Families and Firms," Papers 634, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Goldin, Claudia, 1992.
"Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American Women,"
Oxford University Press, number 9780195072709, March.
- Claudia Goldin, 1990. "Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American Women," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number gold90-1.
- Schultz, T Paul, 1990.
"Women's Changing Participation in the Labor Force: A World Perspective,"
Economic Development and Cultural Change,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 38(3), pages 457-88, April.
- Schultz, T. Paul, 1989. "Women's changing participation in the labor force : a world perspective," Policy Research Working Paper Series 272, The World Bank.
- Schultz, T.P., 1989. "Women'S Changing Participation In The Labor Force: A World Perspective," Papers 571, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Psacharopoulos, George & Tzannatos, Zafiris, 1989. "Female Labor Force Participation: An International Perspective," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 4(2), pages 187-201, July.
- Mukhopadhyay, S.K., 1991. "Adapting Household Behavior to Agricultural Technology in West Bengal, India: Wage labor, Fertility; and Child Schooling Determinants," Papers 631, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:4707. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.