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Economic Development and Female Labor Force Participation in Turkey: Time-Series Evidence and Cross-Province Estimates

  • Aysit Tansel

    ()

    (Department of Economics, Middle East Technical University)

Recently, several researchers hypothesized that the female labor force participation rate exhibits a U-shape during the process of economic development. This paper provides time series evidence on female labor force participation rates in Turkey and considers its cross-provincial determinants. Time series evidence shows that after a period of sharp decline, female labor force participation rates have exhibited a slowdown in the rate of decline recently. An upturn in this rate may be expected during the coming decades. In the cross-provincial determinants of female labor force participation the measure of development used is per capita Gross Provincial Product. A quadratic term in per capita Gross Provincial Product and other determinants are included in the models estimated. The models are estimated using data for 67 provinces for three time points: 1980, 1985 and 1990. The results affirm the U-shaped impact of economic development. Further, unemployment had a considerable discouraging effect on female labor force participation while the impact of education was strongly positive. The hidden unemployment computations indicate that urban female unemployment rate is underestimated and the discouraged-worker effect for women is substantial.

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Paper provided by Economic Research Forum in its series Working Papers with number 0124.

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Length: 25 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2001
Date of revision: Aug 2001
Publication status: Published by The Economic Research Forum (ERF)
Handle: RePEc:erg:wpaper:0124
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  1. Schultz, T.P., 1991. "International Differences in Labor Force Participation in Families and Firms," Papers 634, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
  2. Tansel, A., 1998. "Determinants of School Attainment of Boys and Girls in Turkey," Papers 789, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
  3. Smith, James P & Ward, Michael P, 1985. "Time-Series Growth in the Female Labor Force," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages S59-90, January.
  4. Rosenzweig, Mark R & Wolpin, Kenneth I, 1980. "Life-Cycle Labor Supply and Fertility: Causal Inferences from Household Models," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 88(2), pages 328-48, April.
  5. Schultz, T.P., 1989. "Women'S Changing Participation In The Labor Force: A World Perspective," Papers 571, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
  6. Tansel, Aysit, 1994. "Wage employment, earnings and returns to schooling for men and women in Turkey," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 305-320.
  7. Heckman, James J, 1978. "A Partial Survey of Recent Research on the Labor Supply of Women," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 68(2), pages 200-207, May.
  8. Psacharopoulos, George & Tzannatos, Zafiris, 1989. "Female Labor Force Participation: An International Perspective," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 4(2), pages 187-201, July.
  9. Hill, M Anne, 1983. "Female Labor Force Participation in Developing and Developed Countries-Consideration of the Informal Sector," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(3), pages 459-68, August.
  10. Standing, Guy, 1989. "Global feminization through flexible labor," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 17(7), pages 1077-1095, July.
  11. Kottis, Athena Petraki, 1990. "Shifts over time and regional variation in women's labor force participation rates in a developing economy: The case of Greece," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 117-132, July.
  12. Reuben Gronau, 1976. "Leisure, Home Production and Work--The Theory of The Allocation of Time Revisited," NBER Working Papers 0137, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Killingsworth, Mark R. & Heckman, James J., 1987. "Female labor supply: A survey," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 2, pages 103-204 Elsevier.
  14. Shimada, Haruo & Higuchi, Yoshio, 1985. "An Analysis of Trends in Female Labor Force Participation in Japan," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages S355-74, January.
  15. Franz, Wolfgang, 1985. "An Economic Analysis of Female Work Participation, Education, and Fertility: Theory and Empirical Evidence for the Federal Republic of Germany," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages S218-34, January.
  16. Colombino, Ugo & De Stavola, Bianca, 1985. "A Model of Female Labor Supply in Italy Using Cohort Data," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages S275-92, January.
  17. Mincer, Jacob, 1985. "Intercountry Comparisons of Labor Force Trends and of Related Developments: An Overview," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages S1-32, January.
  18. Hernandez Iglesias, Feliciano & Riboud, Michelle, 1985. "Trends in Labor Force Participation of Spanish Women: An Interpretive Essay," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages S201-17, January.
  19. Standing, Guy, 1999. "Global Feminization Through Flexible Labor: A Theme Revisited," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 583-602, March.
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