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Public Sector Labor Markets

  • Ronald G. Ehrenberg
  • Joshua L. Schwarz

This paper provides a critical survey of the literature dealing with public sector labor markets. It discusses the research by economists on wage determination in the state and local sector (including the effects of unions), on the estimation of compensating wage differentials for pecuniary and nonpecuniary job characteristics, on the effects of unions on productivity, on the estimation of public/private pay differentials, and on gender and race discrimination in the public sector. Numerous suggestions for future research are offered.

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File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w1179.pdf
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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 1179.

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Date of creation: Aug 1983
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Publication status: published as Ehrenberg, Ronald and Joshua Schwarz. "Public Sector Labor Markets." Handbook of Labor Economics, edited by Orley Ashenfelter and Richard Layard. North-Holland, 1986.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:1179
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  1. W. Clayton Hall & Norman E. Carroll, 1973. "The Effect of Teachers' Organizations on Salaries and Class Size," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 26(2), pages 834-841, January.
  2. David B. Lipsky & John E. Drotning, 1973. "The influence of collective bargaining on teachers' salaries in New York State," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 27(1), pages 18-35, October.
  3. D. Alton Smith, 1980. "Government Employment and Black/White Relative Wages," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 15(1), pages 77-86.
  4. Mark Thompson & James Cairnie, 1973. "Compulsory Arbitration: The Case of British Columbia Teachers," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 27(1), pages 3-17, October.
  5. Casey Ichniowski, 1978. "Economic Effects of The Firefighters' Union," NBER Working Papers 0291, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Shapiro, Perry & Sonstelie, Jon, 1982. "Did Proposition 13 Slay Leviathan?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(2), pages 184-90, May.
  7. George E. Johnson & James D. Tomola, 1977. "The Fiscal Substitution Effect of Alternative Approaches to Public Service Employment Policy," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 12(1), pages 3-26.
  8. James L. Freund, 1974. "Market and Union Influences on Municipal Employee Wages," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 27(3), pages 391-404, April.
  9. Hirschel Kasper, 1970. "The effects of collective bargaining on public school teachers' salaries," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 24(1), pages 57-72, October.
  10. Daniel G. Gallagher & Richard Pegnetter, 1979. "Impasse Resolution under the Iowa Multistep Procedure," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 32(3), pages 327-338, April.
  11. D. A. L. Auld & L. N. Christofides & R. Swidinsky & D. A. Wilton, 1981. "The Effect of Settlement Stage on Negotiated Wage Settlements in Canada," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 34(2), pages 234-244, January.
  12. David B. Lipsky & John E. Drotning, 1973. "The Influence of Collective Bargaining on Teachers' Salaries in New York State," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 27(1), pages 18-35, October.
  13. Orley Ashenfelter, 1971. "The effect of unionization on wages in the public sector: The case of fire fighters," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 24(2), pages 191-202, January.
  14. David Shapiro, 1978. "Relative wage effects of unions in the public and private sectors," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 31(2), pages 193-204, January.
  15. Crawford, Vincent P, 1981. "Arbitration and Conflict Resolution in Labor-Management Bargaining," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(2), pages 205-10, May.
  16. Hirschel Kasper, 1970. "The Effects of Collective Bargaining on Public School Teachers' Salaries," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 24(1), pages 57-72, October.
  17. William H. Baugh & Joe A. Stone, 1982. "Teachers, unions, and wages in the 1970s: Unionism now pays," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 35(3), pages 368-376, April.
  18. Kenny, Lawrence W. & Denslow, David Jr., 1980. "Compensating differentials in teachers' salaries," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 198-207, March.
  19. Brown, Byron W & Saks, Daniel H, 1975. "The Production and Distribution of Cognitive Skills within Schools," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 83(3), pages 571-93, June.
  20. Don Bellante & Albert N. Link, 1981. "Are public sector workers more risk averse than private sector workers?," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 34(3), pages 408-412, April.
  21. Thomas A. Kochan & Jean Baderschneider, 1981. "Estimating the narcotic effect: Choosing techniques that fit the problem," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 35(1), pages 21-28, October.
  22. Alan L. Gustman & M. O. Clement, 1977. "Teachers' salary differentials and equality of educational opportunity," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 31(1), pages 61-70, October.
  23. Richard J. Butler & Ronald G. Ehrenberg, 1981. "Estimating the Narcotic Effect of Public Sector Impasse Procedures," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 35(1), pages 3-20, October.
  24. James L. Freund, 1974. "Market and union influences on municipal employee wages," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 27(3), pages 391-404, April.
  25. Smith, Robert Stewart, 1981. "Compensating Differentials for Pensions and Underfunding in the Public Sector," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 63(3), pages 463-68, August.
  26. Chambers, Jay G., 1977. "The impact of collective bargaining for teachers on resource allocation in public school districts," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 324-339, July.
  27. Antos, Joseph R. & Rosen, Sherwin, 1975. "Discrimination in the market for public school teachers," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 123-150, May.
  28. Michael E. Borus & Daniel S. Hamermesh, 1978. "Estimating Fiscal Substitution by Public Service Employment Programs," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 13(4), pages 561-565.
  29. Ashenfelter, Orley & Johnson, George E, 1969. "Bargaining Theory, Trade Unions, and Industrial Strike Activity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(1), pages 35-49, March.
  30. Joseph R. Grodin, 1974. "Arbitration of Public Sector Labor Disputes: The Nevada Experiment," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 28(1), pages 89-102, October.
  31. Freeman, Richard B & Medoff, James L, 1982. "Substitution between Production Labor and Other Inputs in Unionized and Nonunionized Manufacturing," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 64(2), pages 220-33, May.
  32. Margaret H. Simeral, 1978. "The impact of the public employment programs on sex-related wage differentials," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 31(4), pages 509-519, July.
  33. Joseph R. Grodin, 1974. "Arbitration of public sector labor disputes: The Nevada experiment," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 28(1), pages 89-102, October.
  34. Crawford, Vincent P, 1979. "On Compulsory-Arbitration Schemes," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(1), pages 131-59, February.
  35. Gary A. Moore, 1976. "The effect of collective bargaining on internal salary structures in the public schools," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 29(3), pages 352-362, April.
  36. John C. Anderson & Thomas A. Kochan, 1977. "Impasse procedures in the Canadian federal service: Effects on the bargaining process," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 30(3), pages 283-301, April.
  37. John Thomas Delaney, 1983. "Strikes, arbitration, and teacher salaries: A behavioral analysis," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 36(3), pages 431-446, April.
  38. Paul F. Gerhart, 1976. "Determinants of bargaining outcomes in local government labor negotiations," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 29(3), pages 331-351, April.
  39. Angelo S. DeNisi & James B. Dworkin, 1981. "Final-offer arbitration and the naive negotiator," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 35(1), pages 78-87, October.
  40. Thomas A. Kochan & Jean Baderschneider, 1981. "Estimating the Narcotic Effect: Choosing Techniques That Fit the Problem," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 35(1), pages 21-28, October.
  41. John C. Anderson, 1979. "Determinants of Bargaining Outcomes in the Federal Government of Canada," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 32(2), pages 224-241, January.
  42. John Thomas Delaney, 1983. "Strikes, Arbitration, and Teacher Salaries: A Behavioral Analysis," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 36(3), pages 431-446, April.
  43. John C. Anderson & Thomas A. Kochan, 1977. "Impasse Procedures in the Canadian Federal Service: Effects on the Bargaining Process," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 30(3), pages 283-301, April.
  44. Thomas A. Kochan & Jean Baderschneider, 1978. "Dependence on Impasse Procedures: Police and Firefighters in New York State," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 31(4), pages 431-449, July.
  45. Jacob Mincer, 1981. "Union Effects: Wages, Turnover, and Job Training," NBER Working Papers 0808, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  46. Pollak, Robert A & Wales, Terrence J, 1969. "Estimation of the Linear Expenditure System," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(4), pages 611-28, October.
  47. Thomas A. Kochan & Hoyt N. Wheeler, 1975. "Municipal Collective Bargaining: A Model and Analysis of Bargaining Outcomes," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 29(1), pages 46-66, October.
  48. Mark Thompson & James Cairnie, 1973. "Compulsory arbitration: The case of British Columbia teachers," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 27(1), pages 3-17, October.
  49. Anthony Downs, 1957. "An Economic Theory of Political Action in a Democracy," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 65, pages 135.
  50. Orley C Ashenfelter, 1970. "The Effect of Unionization on Wages in the Public Sector: The Case of Fire Fighters," Working Papers 394, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  51. Robert S. Smith, 1979. "Compensating Wage Differentials and Public Policy: A Review," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 32(3), pages 339-352, April.
  52. Orley C. Ashenfelter & David Bloom, 1981. "Models of Arbitrator Behavior: Theory and Evidence," Working Papers 526, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  53. John C. Anderson, 1979. "Determinants of bargaining outcomes in the federal government of Canada," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 32(2), pages 224-241, January.
  54. Charles F. Adams Jr. & Robert F. Cook & Arthur J. Maurice, 1983. "A Pooled Time-Series Analysis of the Job-Creation Impact of Public Service Employment Grants to Large Cities," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 18(2), pages 283-294.
  55. Paul F. Gerhart, 1976. "Determinants of Bargaining Outcomes in Local Government Labor Negotiations," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 29(3), pages 331-351, April.
  56. Mumy, Gene E, 1978. "The Economics of Local Government Pensions and Pension Funding," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(3), pages 517-27, June.
  57. Bartel, Ann & Lewin, David, 1981. "Wages and Unionism in the Public Sector: The Case of Police," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 63(1), pages 53-59, February.
  58. W. Clayton Hall & Norman E. Carroll, 1973. "The effect of teachers' organizations on salaries and class size," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 26(2), pages 834-841, January.
  59. Thomas A. Kochan & Hoyt N. Wheeler, 1975. "Municipal collective bargaining: A model and analysis of bargaining outcomes," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 29(1), pages 46-66, October.
  60. Courant, Paul N & Gramlich, Edward M & Rubinfeld, Daniel L, 1979. "Public Employee Market Power and the Level of Government Spending," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(5), pages 806-17, December.
  61. Thomas A. Kochan & Jean Baderschneider, 1978. "Dependence on impasse procedures: Police and firefighters in New York State," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 31(4), pages 431-449, July.
  62. James E. Long, 1976. "Employment Discrimination in the Federal Sector," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 11(1), pages 86-97.
  63. Schmenner, Roger W, 1973. "The Determination of Municipal Employee Wages," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 55(1), pages 83-90, February.
  64. Angelo S. DeNisi & James B. Dworkin, 1981. "Final-Offer Arbitration and the Naive Negotiator," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 35(1), pages 78-87, October.
  65. Daniel G. Gallagher & Richard Pegnetter, 1979. "Impasse resolution under the Iowa multistep procedure," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 32(3), pages 327-338, April.
  66. Margaret H. Simeral, 1978. "The Impact of the Public Employment Program on Sex-Related Wage Differentials," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 31(4), pages 509-519, July.
  67. Gary A. Moore, 1976. "The Effect of Collective Bargaining on Internal Salary Structures in the Public Schools," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 29(3), pages 352-362, April.
  68. Robert S. Smith, 1979. "Compensating wage differentials and public policy: A review," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 32(3), pages 339-362, April.
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