Explaining Ethnic Disparities in School Enrollment in Turkey
There exist remarkable differences in educational outcomes across ethnic groups in Turkey. Moreover, almost a quarter of the population of 8- to 15-year-old children belongs to ethnic minority groups. Yet, there exists no study that examines the ethnic disparities in educational outcomes in Turkey. This study presents these disparities and uncovers the factors that bring about these disparities, using a rich microlevel data set (Turkish Demographic and Health Survey). In doing so, this article examines the differences not only in the levels of enrollment but also in the timing of dropout across ethnic groups. The multivariate analysis accounts for a rich set of regional and socioeconomic factors, which also display striking differences across ethnic groups. The results show that regional and family-level characteristics can fully account for the differences in the levels of enrollment across ethnic groups for male children, but not fully for female children. In other words, ethnicity has a direct impact on girls' school enrollment but not on boys'. There exists a gender gap among ethnic Turkish children as well as ethnic Arabic and Kurdish children. However, the gender gap among ethnic Kurdish children is wider than that among ethnic Turkish children. (c) 2009 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- George Psacharopoulos, 1985. "Returns to Education: A Further International Update and Implications," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 20(4), pages 583-604.
- Gustafsson, Bjorn & Shi, Li, 2003. "The Ethnic Minority-Majority Income Gap in Rural China during Transition," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(4), pages 805-822, July.
- Becker, Gary S & Lewis, H Gregg, 1973. "On the Interaction between the Quantity and Quality of Children," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(2), pages 279-288, Part II, .
- Meltem Dayioğlu, 2005. "Patterns of Change in Child Labour and Schooling in Turkey: The Impact of Compulsory Schooling," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(2), pages 195-210.
- Strauss, John & Thomas, Duncan, 1995. "Human resources: Empirical modeling of household and family decisions," Handbook of Development Economics,in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 34, pages 1883-2023 Elsevier.
- Tansel, Aysit, 2002. "Determinants of school attainment of boys and girls in Turkey: individual, household and community factors," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 455-470, October.
- Raturi, Mayank & Swamy, Anand V, 1999. "Explaining Ethnic Differentials in Credit Market Outcomes in Zimbabwe," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 47(3), pages 585-604, April.
- Schultz, T. Paul, 1988. "Education investments and returns," Handbook of Development Economics,in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 13, pages 543-630 Elsevier.
- Smith, J.P., 1996.
"Racial and Ethnic Differences in Wealth in the Health and Retirement Study,"
96-12, RAND - Reprint Series.
- James P. Smith, 2004. "Racial and Ethnic Differences in Wealth in the Health and Retirement Study," Labor and Demography 0408011, EconWPA.
- Garcia-Aracil, Adela & Winter, Carolyn, 2006. "Gender and ethnicity differentials in school attainment and labor market earnings in Ecuador," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 289-307, February.
- Marcia M. A. Schafgans, 1998. "Ethnic wage differences in Malaysia: parametric and semiparametric estimation of the Chinese-Malay wage gap," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(5), pages 481-504.
- Strauss, J. & Thomas, D., 1995. "Empirical Modeling of Household and Family Decisions," Papers 95-12, RAND - Reprint Series.
- Robert Haveman & Barbara Wolfe, 1995. "The Determinants of Children's Attainments: A Review of Methods and Findings," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 33(4), pages 1829-1878, December.
- Barry R. Chiswick, 1988. "Differences in Education and Earnings Across Racial and Ethnic Groups: Tastes, Discrimination, and Investments in Child Quality," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 103(3), pages 571-597.
- Behrman, Jere R. & Deolalikar, Anil B., 1988. "Health and nutrition," Handbook of Development Economics,in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 14, pages 631-711 Elsevier.
- Emily Hannum, 2002. "Educational stratification by ethnicity in China: Enrollment and attainment in the early reform years," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 39(1), pages 95-117, February.
- Lauren Krivo & Robert Kaufman, 2004. "Housing and wealth inequality: Racial-ethnic differences in home equity in the United States," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 41(3), pages 585-605, August.
- Emily Hannum & Yu Xie, 1998. "Ethnic stratification in Northwest China: Occupational differences between Han Chinese and national minorities in Xinjiang, 1982–1990," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 35(3), pages 323-333, August. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)