IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/f/pve223.html
   My authors  Follow this author

Bertrand Verheyden

Personal Details

First Name:Bertrand
Middle Name:
Last Name:Verheyden
Suffix:
RePEc Short-ID:pve223
[This author has chosen not to make the email address public]
Terminal Degree:2008 École des Sciences Économiques de Louvain; Louvain Institute of Data Analysis and Modelling in Economics and Statistics (LIDAM); Université Catholique de Louvain (from RePEc Genealogy)

Affiliation

(50%) Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research (LISER, CEPS/INSTEAD)

Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg
http://www.liser.lu/
RePEc:edi:cepsslu (more details at EDIRC)

(50%) Faculté des Sciences Économiques, Sociales et de Gestion (FSESG)
Université de Namur

Namur, Belgium
http://www.fundp.ac.be/facultes/eco/
RePEc:edi:fsfunbe (more details at EDIRC)

Research output

as
Jump to: Working papers Articles

Working papers

  1. Nikolaos Askitas & Konstantinos Tatsiramos & Bertrand Verheyden, 2020. "Lockdown Strategies, Mobility Patterns and Covid-19," CESifo Working Paper Series 8338, CESifo.
  2. COSAERT Sam & THELOUDIS Alexandros & VERHEYDEN Bertrand, 2020. "Togetherness in the Household," LISER Working Paper Series 2020-01, LISER.
  3. Delpierre, Matthieu & Dupuy, Arnaud & Tenikue, Michel & Verheyden, Bertrand, 2017. "The Education Motive for Migrant Remittances: Theory and Evidence from India," IZA Discussion Papers 10772, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  4. DELPIERRE Matthieu & VERHEYDEN Bertrand, 2014. "Remittances, savings and return migration under uncertainty," LISER Working Paper Series 2014-01, LISER.
  5. DELPIERRE Matthieu & VERHEYDEN Bertrand & WEYNANTS Stéphanie, 2014. "Do the poor benefit less from informal risk-sharing? Risk externalities and moral hazard in decentralized insurance arrangements," LISER Working Paper Series 2014-08, LISER.
  6. BROSIUS Jacques & RAY Jean-Claude & VERHEYDEN Bertrand & WILLIAMS Donald R., 2014. "Wage differentials between natives and cross-border workers within and across establishments," LISER Working Paper Series 2014-04, LISER.
  7. VERHEYDEN Bertrand & FAYE Ousmane, 2011. "Fertility and Child Occupation: Theory and Evidence from Senegal," LISER Working Paper Series 2011-59, LISER.
  8. Matthieu Delpierre & Bertrand Verheyden, 2011. "Student and Worker Mobility under University and Government Competition," CESifo Working Paper Series 3415, CESifo.
  9. DELPIERRE Matthieu & VERHEYDEN Bertrand & WEYNANTS Stéphanie, 2011. "On the interaction between risk-taking and risk-sharing under farm household wealth heterogeneity," LISER Working Paper Series 2011-35, LISER.
  10. Elena Del Rey & Bertrand Verheyden, 2011. "Loans, Insurance and Failures in the Credit Market for Students," CESifo Working Paper Series 3410, CESifo.
  11. DELPIERRE Matthieu & VERHEYDEN Bertrand, 2010. "Remittances as pure or precautionary investment? Risk, savings and return migration," LISER Working Paper Series 2010-39, LISER.

Articles

  1. Delpierre, Matthieu & Verheyden, Bertrand & Weynants, Stéphanie, 2016. "Is informal risk-sharing less effective for the poor? Risk externalities and moral hazard in mutual insurance," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 282-297.
  2. Matthieu Delpierre & Bertrand Verheyden, 2014. "Remittances, savings and return migration under uncertainty," IZA Journal of Migration and Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 3(1), pages 1-43, December.
  3. Delpierre, Matthieu & Verheyden, Bertrand, 2014. "Student and worker mobility under university and government competition," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 26-41.
  4. Michel Tenikue & Bertrand Verheyden, 2010. "Birth Order and Schooling: Theory and Evidence from Twelve Sub-Saharan Countries," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 19(4), pages 459-495, August.
  5. Frantz Adam & Fréderic Gaspart & Louis Gevers & Bertrand Verheyden, 2002. "Adolescents, et déjà si inégaux," Reflets et perspectives de la vie économique, De Boeck Université, vol. 0(4), pages 65-85.

Citations

Many of the citations below have been collected in an experimental project, CitEc, where a more detailed citation analysis can be found. These are citations from works listed in RePEc that could be analyzed mechanically. So far, only a minority of all works could be analyzed. See under "Corrections" how you can help improve the citation analysis.

RePEc Biblio mentions

As found on the RePEc Biblio, the curated bibliography of Economics:
  1. Askitas, Nikos & Tatsiramos, Konstantinos & Verheyden, Bertrand, 2020. "Lockdown Strategies, Mobility Patterns and COVID-19," IZA Discussion Papers 13293, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

    Mentioned in:

    1. > Economics of Welfare > Health Economics > Economics of Pandemics > Specific pandemics > Covid-19 > Health > Distancing and Lockdown > Measurement and effect on mobility

Working papers

  1. Nikolaos Askitas & Konstantinos Tatsiramos & Bertrand Verheyden, 2020. "Lockdown Strategies, Mobility Patterns and Covid-19," CESifo Working Paper Series 8338, CESifo.

    Cited by:

    1. Eduardo Levy Yeyati & Patricio Goldstein & Luca Sartorio, "undated". "Lockdown Fatigue: The Diminishing Effects of Quarantines on the Spread of COVID-19," CID Working Papers 391, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
    2. Cristina PRUND, 2020. "The Abrupt Fall Of The Labor Market: The Case Of The European Labor Market And The Impact Generated By Covid-19," Proceedings of the INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE, Faculty of Management, Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania, vol. 14(1), pages 722-730, November.
    3. Michał Wielechowski & Katarzyna Czech & Łukasz Grzęda, 2020. "Decline in Mobility: Public Transport in Poland in the time of the COVID-19 Pandemic," Economies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(4), pages 1-24, September.
    4. Burdett, Ashley & Davillas, Apostolos & Etheridge, Ben, 2021. "Weather, psychological wellbeing and mobility during the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic," GLO Discussion Paper Series 785, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    5. Burdett, A. & Davillas, A. & Etheridge, B., 2021. "Weather, psychological wellbeing and mobility during the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic," Health, Econometrics and Data Group (HEDG) Working Papers 21/03, HEDG, c/o Department of Economics, University of York.
    6. Andrew Atkeson & Karen A. Kopecky & Tao Zha, 2020. "Four Stylized Facts about COVID-19," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2020-15, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    7. Souknilanh Keola & Kazunobu Hayakawa, 2021. "Do Lockdown Policies Reduce Economic and Social Activities? Evidence from NO2 Emissions," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 59(2), pages 178-205, June.
    8. Yuksel, Mutlu & Aydede, Yigit & Begolli, Francisko, 2020. "Dynamics of Social Mobility during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Canada," IZA Discussion Papers 13376, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    9. Martin Huber & Henrika Langen, 2020. "Timing matters: the impact of response measures on COVID-19-related hospitalization and death rates in Germany and Switzerland," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics, Springer;Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics, vol. 156(1), pages 1-19, December.
    10. Laura Coroneo & Fabrizio Iacone, 2021. "Testing for equal predictive accuracy with strong dependence," Discussion Papers 21/03, Department of Economics, University of York.
    11. Ferraresi, Massimiliano & Kotsogiannis, Christos & Rizzo, Leonzio & Secomandi, Riccardo, 2020. "The ‘Great Lockdown’ and its determinants," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 197(C).
    12. Eckardt, Matthias & Kappner, Kalle & Wolf, Nikolaus, 2020. "Covid-19 across European Regions: the Role of Border Controls," CEPR Discussion Papers 15178, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    13. Millimet, Daniel L. & Parmeter, Christopher F., 2021. "COVID-19 Severity: A New Approach to Quantifying Global Cases and Deaths," IZA Discussion Papers 14116, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    14. Hayakawa, Kazunobu & Mukunoki, Hiroshi, 2021. "The impact of COVID-19 on international trade: Evidence from the first shock," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 60(C).
    15. Bargain, Olivier & Aminjonov, Ulugbek, 2020. "Trust and compliance to public health policies in times of COVID-19," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 192(C).
    16. Etienne Farvaque & Hira Iqbal & Nicolas Ooghe, 2020. "Health politics? Determinants of US states’ reactions to COVID-19," Post-Print hal-03128875, HAL.
    17. Gonzalo Castex & Evgenia Dechter & Miguel Lorca, 2021. "COVID-19: The impact of social distancing policies, cross-country analysis," Economics of Disasters and Climate Change, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 135-159, April.
    18. Burdett, Ashley & Davillas, Apostolos & Etheridge, Ben, 2021. "Weather, Psychological Wellbeing and Mobility during the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic," IZA Discussion Papers 14119, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    19. Koopmans, Ruud, 2020. "A virus that knows no borders? Exposure to and restrictions of international travel and the global diffusion of COVID-19," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Migration, Integration, Transnationalization SP VI 2020-103, WZB Berlin Social Science Center.
    20. Massimiliano Ferraresi & Christos Kotsogiannis & Leonzio Rizzo & Riccardo Secomandi, 2020. "The ‘Great Lockdown’ and its Determinants," Working papers 91, Società Italiana di Economia Pubblica.

  2. COSAERT Sam & THELOUDIS Alexandros & VERHEYDEN Bertrand, 2020. "Togetherness in the Household," LISER Working Paper Series 2020-01, LISER.

    Cited by:

    1. Chiappori, Pierre-André & Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio & Molina, José Alberto & Theloudis, Alexandros & Velilla, Jorge, 2020. "Intrahousehold Commitment and Intertemporal Labor Supply," IZA Discussion Papers 13545, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    2. Gimenez-Nadal, Jose Ignacio & Velilla, Jorge, 2020. "Home-based work, time endowments, and subjective well-being: Gender differences in the United Kingdom," MPRA Paper 104937, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Jesper R.-V. Soerensen & Mogens Fosgerau, 2020. "How McFadden met Rockafellar and learnt to do more with less," Discussion Papers 20-01, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.

  3. DELPIERRE Matthieu & VERHEYDEN Bertrand, 2014. "Remittances, savings and return migration under uncertainty," LISER Working Paper Series 2014-01, LISER.

    Cited by:

    1. Adamopoulou, Effrosyni & Kaya, Ezgi, 2019. "Not Just a Work Permit: EU Citizenship and the Consumption Behavior of Documented and Undocumented Immigrants," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2019/16, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
    2. Matthieu Delpierre & Arnaud Dupuy & Michel Tenikue & Bertrand Verheyden, 2017. "The education motive for migrant remittances - Theory and evidence from India," DEM Discussion Paper Series 17-13, Department of Economics at the University of Luxembourg.
    3. Aurelian-Petruş PLOPEANU & Daniel HOMOCIANU, 2020. "Why would Romanian migrants from Western Europe return to their country of origin? Abstract: After conducting a survey among Romanian individuals left abroad, we analyze the particular influences rela," Eastern Journal of European Studies, Centre for European Studies, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, vol. 11, pages 211-235, June.
    4. Chabé-Ferret, Bastien & Machado, Joël & Wahba, Jackline, 2018. "Remigration intentions and migrants' behavior," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 56-72.
    5. MAWUSI, Charles, 2020. "Economic Uncertainty and Remittances Flow: Heterogeneity Matters," MPRA Paper 103097, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Aaron Levi Garavito-Acosta & Maria Mercedes Collazos-Gaitan & Manuel Dario Hernandez-Bejarano & Enrique Montes-Uribe, 2019. "Migración internacional y determinantes de las remesas de trabajadores en Colombia," Borradores de Economia 1066, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    7. Kaufmann, Marc & Machado, Joël & Verheyden, Bertrand, 2021. "Why Do Migrants Stay Unexpectedly? Misperceptions and Implications for Integration," IZA Discussion Papers 14155, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

  4. DELPIERRE Matthieu & VERHEYDEN Bertrand & WEYNANTS Stéphanie, 2014. "Do the poor benefit less from informal risk-sharing? Risk externalities and moral hazard in decentralized insurance arrangements," LISER Working Paper Series 2014-08, LISER.

    Cited by:

    1. Delpierre, Matthieu & Verheyden, Bertrand & Weynants, Stéphanie, 2016. "Is informal risk-sharing less effective for the poor? Risk externalities and moral hazard in mutual insurance," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 282-297.

  5. BROSIUS Jacques & RAY Jean-Claude & VERHEYDEN Bertrand & WILLIAMS Donald R., 2014. "Wage differentials between natives and cross-border workers within and across establishments," LISER Working Paper Series 2014-04, LISER.

    Cited by:

    1. Philippe Van Kerm & Seunghee Yu & Chung Choe, 2016. "Decomposing quantile wage gaps: a conditional likelihood approach," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series C, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 65(4), pages 507-527, August.
    2. VAN KERM Philippe & YU Seunghee & CHOE Chung, 2014. "Wage differentials between native, immigrant and cross-border workers: Evidence and model comparisons," LISER Working Paper Series 2014-05, LISER.

  6. Matthieu Delpierre & Bertrand Verheyden, 2011. "Student and Worker Mobility under University and Government Competition," CESifo Working Paper Series 3415, CESifo.

    Cited by:

    1. Gabrielle Demange & Robert Fenge, 2010. "Competition in the quality of higher education: the impact of students' mobility," Working Papers halshs-00564912, HAL.
    2. Akira Shimada, 2019. "Should the Government Promote Global Education?," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(2), pages 323-341.
    3. Georg-Benedikt Fischer & Berthold U. Wigger, 2016. "Fiscal Competition and Higher Education Spending in Germany," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 17(2), pages 234-252, May.
    4. Laurent Dupont & Laure Morel & Claudine Guidat, 2015. "Innovative public-private partnership to support Smart City: the case of “Chaire REVES”," Post-Print hal-01332233, HAL.

  7. Elena Del Rey & Bertrand Verheyden, 2011. "Loans, Insurance and Failures in the Credit Market for Students," CESifo Working Paper Series 3410, CESifo.

    Cited by:

    1. Lance Lochner & Alexander Monge-Naranjo, 2015. "Student Loans and Repayment: Theory, Evidence and Policy," Working Paper series 15-11, Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis.

  8. DELPIERRE Matthieu & VERHEYDEN Bertrand, 2010. "Remittances as pure or precautionary investment? Risk, savings and return migration," LISER Working Paper Series 2010-39, LISER.

    Cited by:

    1. Diego Alberto Sandoval Herrera & María Fernanda Reyes Roa, 2012. "¿Por qué los migrantes envían remesas?: Repaso de las principales motivaciones microeconómicas," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 010036, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
    2. Lücke, Matthias & Omar Mahmoud, Toman & Peuker, Christian, 2012. "Identifying the motives of migrant philanthropy," Kiel Working Papers 1790, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    3. Licuanan, Victoria & Omar Mahmoud, Toman & Steinmayr, Andreas, 2012. "The drivers of diaspora donations for development: Evidence from the Philippines," Kiel Working Papers 1807, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).

Articles

  1. Delpierre, Matthieu & Verheyden, Bertrand & Weynants, Stéphanie, 2016. "Is informal risk-sharing less effective for the poor? Risk externalities and moral hazard in mutual insurance," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 282-297.

    Cited by:

    1. Melesse, Mequanint B. & Cecchi, Francesco, 2017. "Does Market Experience Attenuate Risk Aversion? Evidence from Landed Farm Households in Ethiopia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 447-466.
    2. Putman, Daniel S., 2020. "The Scope of Risk Pooling," 2020 Annual Meeting, July 26-28, Kansas City, Missouri 304480, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    3. Mani Motameni, 2017. "A Novel Analysis of Risk Sharing Effects on Income Inequality in Informal Insurances," Iranian Economic Review (IER), Faculty of Economics,University of Tehran.Tehran,Iran, vol. 21(2), pages 230-240, Spring.

  2. Matthieu Delpierre & Bertrand Verheyden, 2014. "Remittances, savings and return migration under uncertainty," IZA Journal of Migration and Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 3(1), pages 1-43, December.
    See citations under working paper version above.
  3. Delpierre, Matthieu & Verheyden, Bertrand, 2014. "Student and worker mobility under university and government competition," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 26-41.
    See citations under working paper version above.
  4. Michel Tenikue & Bertrand Verheyden, 2010. "Birth Order and Schooling: Theory and Evidence from Twelve Sub-Saharan Countries," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 19(4), pages 459-495, August.

    Cited by:

    1. Baland, Jean-Marie & Bonjean, Isabelle & Guirkinger, Catherine & Ziparo, Roberta, 2015. "The economic consequences of mutual help in extended families," CEPR Discussion Papers 10945, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Makate, Marshall, 2016. "Maternal health-seeking behavior and child’s birth order: Evidence from Malawi, Uganda, and Zimbabwe," MPRA Paper 72722, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 14 Jul 2016.
    3. Fredrick M. Wamalwa & Justine Burns, 2017. "Gender and Birth Order Effects on Intra-household Schooling Choices and Education Attainments in Kenya," SALDRU Working Papers 203, Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town.
    4. Wilson, Nicholas, 2018. "Altruism in preventive health behavior: At-scale evidence from the HIV/AIDS pandemic," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 119-129.
    5. Jeanne Lafortune & Soohyung Lee, 2014. "All for One? Family Size and Children's Educational Distribution under Credit Constraints," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(5), pages 365-369, May.
    6. DIARRA, Setou & LEBIHAN, Laetitia & MAO TAKONGMO, Charles Olivier, 2018. "Polygyny, Child Education, Health and Labour: Theory and Evidence from Mali," MPRA Paper 88518, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Annika Lindskog, 2018. "Diversification of Human Capital Investments in Rural Ethiopia," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 30(4), pages 676-692, September.
    8. Lucio Esposito & Sunil Mitra Kumar & Adrián Villaseñor, 2020. "The importance of being earliest: birth order and educational outcomes along the socioeconomic ladder in Mexico," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 33(3), pages 1069-1099, July.
    9. Monique De Haan & Erik Plug & José Rosero, 2014. "Birth Order and Human Capital Development: Evidence from Ecuador," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 49(2), pages 359-392.
    10. Peter Hangoma & Arild Aakvik & Bjarne Robberstad, 2017. "Explaining changes in child health inequality in the run up to the 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): The case of Zambia," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 12(2), pages 1-21, February.
    11. Valérie Jarry & Alain Gagnon & Robert Bourbeau, 2013. "Maternal age, birth order and other early-life factors: a family-level approach to exploring exceptional survival," Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, Vienna Institute of Demography (VID) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna, vol. 11(1), pages 267-294.
    12. Jaqueline Oliveira, 2019. "Birth order and the gender gap in educational attainment," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 17(3), pages 775-803, September.
    13. Vinish Shrestha & Rashesh Shrestha, 2017. "Intergenerational effect of education reform: mother's education and children's human capital in Nepal," Working Papers 2017-05, Towson University, Department of Economics, revised Oct 2017.
    14. KUEPIE Mathias & TENIKUE Michel, 2012. "The effect of the number of siblings on education in sub-Saharan Africa: evidence from a natural experiment," LISER Working Paper Series 2012-28, LISER.
    15. Maximilian Schwefer, 2018. "Birth Order Effects and Educational Achievement in the Developing World," ifo Working Paper Series 282, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.

More information

Research fields, statistics, top rankings, if available.

Statistics

Access and download statistics for all items

Co-authorship network on CollEc

NEP Fields

NEP is an announcement service for new working papers, with a weekly report in each of many fields. This author has had 11 papers announced in NEP. These are the fields, ordered by number of announcements, along with their dates. If the author is listed in the directory of specialists for this field, a link is also provided.
  1. NEP-MIG: Economics of Human Migration (5) 2010-12-23 2014-02-08 2014-05-17 2017-05-28 2017-09-03. Author is listed
  2. NEP-DEV: Development (4) 2011-07-21 2012-02-20 2017-05-28 2017-09-03
  3. NEP-AGR: Agricultural Economics (3) 2011-07-21 2012-05-15 2014-06-28
  4. NEP-EDU: Education (2) 2017-05-28 2017-09-03
  5. NEP-IAS: Insurance Economics (2) 2014-06-28 2020-09-21
  6. NEP-URE: Urban & Real Estate Economics (2) 2014-05-17 2020-06-22
  7. NEP-AFR: Africa (1) 2012-02-20
  8. NEP-AGE: Economics of Ageing (1) 2017-05-28
  9. NEP-CTA: Contract Theory & Applications (1) 2014-06-28
  10. NEP-CWA: Central & Western Asia (1) 2010-12-23
  11. NEP-DEM: Demographic Economics (1) 2012-02-20
  12. NEP-EUR: Microeconomic European Issues (1) 2014-05-17
  13. NEP-INT: International Trade (1) 2014-02-08
  14. NEP-LAB: Labour Economics (1) 2014-05-17

Corrections

All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. For general information on how to correct material on RePEc, see these instructions.

To update listings or check citations waiting for approval, Bertrand Verheyden should log into the RePEc Author Service.

To make corrections to the bibliographic information of a particular item, find the technical contact on the abstract page of that item. There, details are also given on how to add or correct references and citations.

To link different versions of the same work, where versions have a different title, use this form. Note that if the versions have a very similar title and are in the author's profile, the links will usually be created automatically.

Please note that most corrections can take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.