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Mikroökonometrische Analyse der individuellen und institutionellen Determinanten von Bildung und Berufswahl

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  • Natalie Obergruber

Abstract

In vier eigenständigen Kapiteln untersucht das Promotionsprojekt verschiedene kausale Determinanten von erworbener Bildung und von Charakteristiken ergriffener Berufe. Das erste Kapitel analysiert den Einfluss einer Trennung der Eltern auf Fünftklässler in deren kognitiven Fähigkeiten in der Grundkompetenz Lesen. Daten des Nationalen Bildungspanels (NEPS) und ein Value-Added Ansatz zeigen, dass die Leistungen der Schülerinnen und Schüler vor allem in dem Jahr bevor sich die Eltern trennen negativ beeinflusst sind. Das zweite Kapitel evaluiert eine Bildungsreform der 1960er/70er Jahre, die dafür gesorgt hat, Abgänger/innen des Gymnasiums automatisch nach Bestehen der 9. oder 10. Klasse einen Haupt- oder Realschulabschluss zu verleihen. Für die Identifikation des Effekts nutzen wir die unterschiedlichen Reformzeitpunkte in 10 deutschen Bundesländern aus und finden, dass die Reform dazu beigetragen hat, dass Schüler/innen weniger Schulwechsel absolvieren, länger in der Schule bleiben und so eher das Abitur bestehen. Das führt ebenfalls zu einer höheren Wahrscheinlichkeit einen Universitätsabschluss zu machen. Das dritte Kapitel beschäftigt sich mit der Korrelation zwischen der Wahl von Mathematik-intensiven Berufen und dem höheren Rang einer Schülerin in Mathematik im Vergleich zu Deutsch. Diese Korrelation wird weder gänzlich von klassen- oder schulspezifischen Faktoren getrieben noch von der Nachfrage am Arbeitsmarkt, elterlichen Berufen, absoluten Noten noch von der tatsächlichen Leistung in Mathematik und Deutsch. Im Endeffekt erklären individuelle Interessen von Fünfzehnjährigen den robusten Zusammenhang. Das vierte Kapitel untersucht die langfristigen Auswirkungen von Vermögensungleichheit. Ein landwirtschaftliches Erbrecht, das vorsieht das Erbe gleichmäßig unter den Geschwistern aufzuteilen führt im Deutschen Reich des 19. Jahrhunderts zu einer früheren Adaption der Industrialisierung – was besonders in den Berufsdaten erkennbar ist. Der frühere strukturelle Wandel hat bis heute positiven Einfluss auf die Einkommen in den Gebieten, die im 19. Jahrhundert das landwirtschaftliche Erbe gleich verteilt haben unter den Geschwistern.

Suggested Citation

  • Natalie Obergruber, 2018. "Mikroökonometrische Analyse der individuellen und institutionellen Determinanten von Bildung und Berufswahl," ifo Beiträge zur Wirtschaftsforschung, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, number 80.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ifobei:80
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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality
    • I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy
    • J12 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • N13 - Economic History - - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations - - - Europe: Pre-1913
    • N33 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy - - - Europe: Pre-1913
    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes
    • O47 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Empirical Studies of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity; Cross-Country Output Convergence

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