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The Gender Pay Gap: Micro Sources and Macro Consequences

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  • Morchio, Iacopo
  • Moser, Christian

Abstract

We assess the sources and consequences of the gender pay gap using a combination of theory and measurement. We start by documenting three empirical facts. First, women are more likely than men to work at low-paying employers. Second, for women as for men, pay is not the sole determinant of workers' revealed-preference rankings of employers. Third, both pay and the revealed-preference rank differ between women and men within the same employer. To interpret these facts, we develop an empirical equilibrium search model featuring endogenous gender differences in pay, amenities, and recruiting intensities across employers. The estimated model suggests that compensating differentials explain one fifth of the gender gap, that there are significant output and welfare gains from eliminating gender differences, and that an equal-pay policy fails to close the gender pay gap.

Suggested Citation

  • Morchio, Iacopo & Moser, Christian, 2018. "The Gender Pay Gap: Micro Sources and Macro Consequences," MPRA Paper 99276, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 24 Mar 2020.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:99276
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    Cited by:

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    2. Moser, Christian & Saidi, Farzad & Wirth, Benjamin & Wolter, Stefanie, 2020. "Credit Supply, Firms, and Earnings Inequality," MPRA Paper 100371, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Jeremy Greenwood & Nezih Guner & Ricardo Marto, 2021. "The Great Transition: Kuznets Facts for Family-Economists," Economie d'Avant Garde Research Reports 33, Economie d'Avant Garde.
    4. Olle Folke & Johanna Rickne, 2022. "Sexual Harassment and Gender Inequality in the Labor Market [High Wage Workers and High Wage Firms]," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 137(4), pages 2163-2212.
    5. Christopher Neilson & Federico Huneeus & Conrad Miller & Seth Zimmerman, 2021. "Firm Sorting, College Major, and the Gender Earnings Gap," Working Papers 649, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
    6. Neyer, Ulrike & Stempel, Daniel, 2021. "Gender discrimination, inflation, and the business cycle," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 70(C).
    7. Felipe Benguria, 2020. "Firms, Jobs, and Gender Disparities in Top Incomes: Evidence from Brazil," Upjohn Working Papers 20-338, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
    8. Titan Alon & Matthias Doepke & Jane Olmstead-Rumsey, 2020. "This Time It's Different: The Role of Women's Employment in a Pandemic Recession," Working Papers 2020-057, Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group.
    9. Engbom, Niklas & Moser, Christian, 2020. "Firm Pay Dynamics," MPRA Paper 98477, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Cruz, Gabriel & Rau, Tomás, 2022. "The effects of equal pay laws on firm pay premiums: Evidence from Chile," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(C).
    11. Jason Sockin, 2022. "Show Me the Amenity: Are Higher-Paying Firms Better All Around?," CESifo Working Paper Series 9842, CESifo.
    12. Xiao, Pengpeng, 2021. "Wage and Employment Discrimination by Gender in Labor Market Equilibrium," Working Papers 144, VATT Institute for Economic Research.
    13. Burbano, Vanessa & Padilla, Nicolas & Meier, Stephan, 2020. "Gender Differences in Preferences for Meaning at Work," IZA Discussion Papers 13053, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    14. Cortes, Patricia & Pan, Jessica & Pilossoph, Laura & Zafar, Basit, 2021. "Gender Differences in Job Search and the Earnings Gap: Evidence from Business Majors," IZA Discussion Papers 14373, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    15. Li, Jiang & Dostie, Benoit & Simard-Duplain, Gaëlle, 2020. "What Is the Role of Firm-Specific Pay Policies on the Gender Earnings Gap in Canada?," IZA Discussion Papers 13907, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    16. Kevin Donovan & Will Jianyu Lu & Todd Schoellman, 2020. "Labor Market Dynamics and Development," Staff Report 596, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
    17. Fanfani, Bernardo, 2022. "Tastes for discrimination in monopsonistic labour markets," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(C).
    18. Anelli, Massimo & Koenig, Felix, 2021. "Willingness to Pay for Workplace Safety," IZA Discussion Papers 14919, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Worker and Firm Heterogeneity; Misallocation; Compensating Differentials; Discrimination; Empirical Equilibrium Search Model; Linked Employer-Employee Data;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • E25 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Aggregate Factor Income Distribution
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials

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