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The gender unemployment gap

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  • Stefania Albanesi
  • Aysegul Sahin

Abstract

The unemployment gender gap, defined as the difference between female and male unemployment rates, was positive until 1980. This gap virtually disappeared after 1980--except during recessions, when men's unemployment rates always exceed women's. We study the evolution of these gender differences in unemployment from a long-run perspective and over the business cycle. Using a calibrated three-state search model of the labor market, we show that the rise in female labor force attachment and the decline in male attachment can mostly account for the closing of the gender unemployment gap. Evidence from nineteen OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries also supports the notion that convergence in attachment is associated with a decline in the gender unemployment gap. At the cyclical frequency, we find that gender differences in industry composition are important in recessions, especially the most recent, but they do not explain gender differences in employment growth during recoveries.

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  • Stefania Albanesi & Aysegul Sahin, 2013. "The gender unemployment gap," Staff Reports 613, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fednsr:613
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Where did the gender unemployment gap go?
      by Economic Logician in Economic Logic on 2013-06-12 19:20:00

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    Cited by:

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    3. Ionescu, Romeo-Victor & Zlati, Monica Laura & Antohi, Valentin Marian, 2021. "European union's regions between cohesion and sustainability," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 169(C).
    4. Crump, Richard K. & Eusepi, Stefano & Giannoni, Marc & Sahin, Aysegul, 2019. "A Unified Approach to Measuring u," CEPR Discussion Papers 13939, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Kim, Jiyeon, 2021. "Searching for the Cause of the Gender Gap in Employment Losses during the COVID-19 Crisis," KDI Journal of Economic Policy, Korea Development Institute (KDI), vol. 43(2), pages 53-79.
    6. Razzu, Giovanni & Singleton, Carl, 2016. "Gender and the business cycle: An analysis of labour markets in the US and UK," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 47(PB), pages 131-146.
    7. Bičáková, Alena & Kalíšková, Klára, 2019. "(Un)intended effects of parental leave policies: Evidence from the Czech Republic," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(C).
    8. Shairilizwan Taasim, 2020. "The Effect of Gender Unemployment on Economic Growth: A Panel Data Analysis," GATR Journals jber194, Global Academy of Training and Research (GATR) Enterprise.
    9. Jetter, Michael & Magnusson, Leandro M. & Roth, Sebastian, 2020. "Becoming sensitive: Males’ risk and time preferences after the 2008 financial crisis," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 128(C).
    10. Wolfgang Auer, 2018. "Empirische Aufsätze zu den sozioökonomischen Konsequenzen von ökonomischer Unsicherheit," ifo Beiträge zur Wirtschaftsforschung, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, number 79.
    11. Kovalenko, Tim & Töpfer, Marina, 2021. "Cyclical dynamics and the gender pay gap: A structural VAR approach," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 99(C).
    12. Giovanni Razzu & Carl Singleton, 2014. "Gender and the Business Cycle: A Stocks and Flows Analysis of US and UK Labour Market States," Economics Discussion Papers em-dp2014-10, Department of Economics, University of Reading.
    13. Njoh, Ambe J. & Bigon, Liora & Ananga, Erick O. & Ayuk-Etang, Richard A., 2018. "Institutional, economic and socio-cultural factors accounting for gender-based inequalities in land title procurement in Cameroon," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 116-125.
    14. Alica Ida Bonk & Laure Simon, 2021. "From He-Cession to She-Stimulus? The Labor Market Impact of Fiscal Policy Across Gender," Staff Working Papers 21-42, Bank of Canada.
    15. Feridoon Koohi-Kamali & Aida Farmand & Jose Pedro Bastos Neves, 2021. "The Duration of U.S. Joblessness and the Great Recession," SCEPA working paper series. 2021-03, Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis (SCEPA), The New School.
    16. Franciscos Koutentakis, 2015. "Gender Unemployment Dynamics: Evidence from Ten Advanced Economies," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 29(1), pages 15-31, March.
    17. Giovanni Razzu & Carl Singleton, 2018. "Segregation and Gender Gaps in the United Kingdom's Great Recession and Recovery," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(4), pages 31-55, October.
    18. Jiyeon Kim, 2019. "Skill-Biased Technological Change, Inequality, and the Role of Retraining," Working Paper 7116, Department of Economics, University of Pittsburgh.
    19. Forsythe, Eliza & Wu, Jhih-Chian, 2021. "Explaining Demographic Heterogeneity in Cyclical Unemployment," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(C).
    20. Bart Hobijn & Ayşegül Şahin, 2021. "Maximum Employment and the Participation Cycle," NBER Working Papers 29222, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    21. Rafael Carranza, 2020. "Inequality of Outcomes, Inequality of Opportunity, and Economic Growth," Working Papers 534, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    22. Giovanni Razzu & Carl Singleton, 2015. "Segregation and Gender Gaps through the UK's Great Recession," Economics Discussion Papers em-dp2015-02, Department of Economics, University of Reading.
    23. Tur-Prats, Ana, 2021. "Unemployment and intimate partner violence: A Cultural approach," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 185(C), pages 27-49.
    24. Alexander Mihailov & Giovanni Razzu & Zhe Wang, 2020. "The Gender Unemployment Gap Across the Euro Area: The Role of Macroeconomic Shocks and Labour Market Institutions," Economics Discussion Papers em-dp2020-26, Department of Economics, University of Reading.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    participation; unemployment;

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • J64 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search

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