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Gender Gaps and the Rise of the Service Economy

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  • L. Rachel Ngai
  • Barbara Petrongolo

Abstract

This paper explains the narrowing of gender gaps in wages and market hours in recent decades by the growth of the service economy. We propose a model with three sectors: goods, services and home production. Women have a comparative advantage in the production of services in the market and at home. The growth of the services sector, in turn driven by structural transformation and marketization of home services, acts as a gender-biased demand shift and leads to a rise in women's wages and market hours relative to men. Quantitatively, the model accounts for an important share of the observed rise in women's relative wage and market hours and the fall in men's market hours.

Suggested Citation

  • L. Rachel Ngai & Barbara Petrongolo, 2013. "Gender Gaps and the Rise of the Service Economy," CEP Discussion Papers dp1204, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  • Handle: RePEc:cep:cepdps:dp1204
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    Cited by:

    1. Doepke, M. & Tertilt, M., 2016. "Families in Macroeconomics," Handbook of Macroeconomics, Elsevier.
    2. repec:red:issued:17-49 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Claudia Olivetti & Barbara Petrongolo, 2014. "Gender gaps across countries and skills: Demand, supply and the industry structure," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 17(4), pages 842-859, October.
    4. Herrendorf, Berthold & Rogerson, Richard & Valentinyi, Ákos, 2014. "Growth and Structural Transformation," Handbook of Economic Growth,in: Handbook of Economic Growth, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 6, pages 855-941 Elsevier.
    5. Jeremy Greenwood & Nezih Guner & Guillaume Vandenbroucke, 2017. "Family Economics Writ Large," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 55(4), pages 1346-1434, December.
    6. Bick, Alexander & Fuchs-Schündeln, Nicola, 2017. "Taxation and Labor Supply of Married Couples across Countries: A Macroeconomic Analysis," IZA Discussion Papers 10504, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    7. Stephan E. Maurer & Andrei V. Potlogea, 2017. "Male-biased Demand Shocks and Women’s Labor Force Participation: Evidence from Large Oil Field Discoveries," Working Paper Series of the Department of Economics, University of Konstanz 2017-08, Department of Economics, University of Konstanz.
    8. Maurer, Stephan E. & Potlogea, Andrei, 2014. "Fueling the gender gap? Oil and women's labor and marriage market outcomes," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 60351, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    9. repec:bpj:bejmac:v:17:y:2017:i:1:p:27:n:1 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Lone Engbo Christiansen & Huidan Huidan Lin & Joana Pereira & Petia Topalova & Rima Turk, 2016. "Individual Choice or Policies? Drivers of Female Employment in Europe," IMF Working Papers 16/49, International Monetary Fund.
    11. Benjamin Bridgman & Georg Duernecker & Berthold Herrendorf, 2015. "Structural Transformation, Marketization, and Household Production around the World," BEA Working Papers 0128, Bureau of Economic Analysis.
    12. Merlino L.P. & Parrotta P. & Pozzoli D., 2014. "Gender differences in sorting," Research Memorandum 022, Maastricht University, Graduate School of Business and Economics (GSBE).
    13. Fang Lei & McDaniel Cara, 2017. "Home hours in the United States and Europe," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 17(1), pages 1-27, January.
    14. Dürnecker, Georg & Herrendorf, Berthold, 2014. "On the Allocation of Time," Working Papers 14-09, University of Mannheim, Department of Economics.
    15. repec:eee:eecrev:v:102:y:2018:i:c:p:169-187 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Bridgman, Benjamin, 2016. "Home productivity," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 60-76.
    17. Jakub Growiec & Michał Gradzewicz & Jan Hagemejer & Zofia Jankiewicz & Piotr Popowski & Katarzyna Puchalska & Paweł Strzelecki & Joanna Tyrowicz, 2015. "Rola usług rynkowych w procesach rozwojowych gospodarki Polski," Gospodarka Narodowa, Warsaw School of Economics, issue 2, pages 163-193.
    18. repec:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:1:p:121-:d:125733 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Sevinç, Orhun, 2017. "Skill-biased technical change and Labor market polarization:the role of skill heterogeneity within occupations," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 86147, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    20. Hélène Couprie & Xavier Joutard, 2017. "Atypical Employment and Prospects of the Youth on the Labor Market in a Crisis Context," THEMA Working Papers 2017-08, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
    21. Christian vom Lehn & Eric Fisher & Aspen Gorry, 2018. "Male Labor Supply and Generational Fiscal Policy," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 28, pages 121-149, April.
    22. Orhun Sevinc, 2017. "Skill-Biased Technical Change and Labor Market Polarization: The Role of Skill Heterogeneity Within Occupations," Discussion Papers 1728, Centre for Macroeconomics (CFM).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    gender gaps; structural transformation; marketization;

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination

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