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Gender gaps and the structure of local labor markets

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  • Petrongolo, Barbara
  • Ronchi, Maddalena

Abstract

In this paper we discuss some strands of the recent literature on the evolution of gender gaps and their driving forces. We will revisit key stylized facts about gender gaps in employment and wages in a few high-income countries. We then discuss and build on one gender-neutral force behind the rise in female employment, namely the rise of the service economy. This is also related to the polarization of female employment and to the geographic distribution of jobs, which is expected to be especially relevant for female employment prospects. We finally turn to currently debated causes of remaining gender gaps and discuss existing evidence on labor market consequences of women’s heavier caring responsibilities in the household. In particular, we highlight sharp gender differences in commuting behavior and discuss how women’s stronger distaste for commuting time may feed into gender pay gaps.

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  • Petrongolo, Barbara & Ronchi, Maddalena, 2020. "Gender gaps and the structure of local labor markets," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:labeco:v:64:y:2020:i:c:s0927537120300257
    DOI: 10.1016/j.labeco.2020.101819
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Gender gaps; Industry structure; Local labor markets;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers

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