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Gender Gaps and the Rise of the Service Economy

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  • L. Rachel Ngai
  • Barbara Petrongolo

Abstract

This paper investigates the role of the rise in services in the narrowing of gender gaps in hours and wages in recent decades. We highlight the between-industry component of differential gender trends for the United States and propose a model economy with goods, services, and home production, in which women have a comparative advantage in producing services. The rise of services, driven by structural transformation and marketization of home production, raises women's relative wages and market hours. Quantitatively, the model accounts for an important share of the observed trends in women's hours and relative wages.

Suggested Citation

  • L. Rachel Ngai & Barbara Petrongolo, 2017. "Gender Gaps and the Rise of the Service Economy," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 1-44, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:aea:aejmac:v:9:y:2017:i:4:p:1-44
    Note: DOI: 10.1257/mac.20150253
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Bridgman, Benjamin & Duernecker, Georg & Herrendorf, Berthold, 2018. "Structural transformation, marketization, and household production around the world," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 133(C), pages 102-126.
    2. Alexander Bick & Nicola Fuchs-Schündeln, 2018. "Taxation and Labour Supply of Married Couples across Countries: A Macroeconomic Analysis," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 85(3), pages 1543-1576.
    3. Doepke, M. & Tertilt, M., 2016. "Families in Macroeconomics," Handbook of Macroeconomics, Elsevier.
    4. Zuazu Bermejo, Izaskun, 2018. "Cultural Values, Family Decisions and Gender Segregation in Higher Education: Evidence from 26 OECD Economies," IKERLANAK Ikerlanak;2018-107, Universidad del País Vasco - Departamento de Fundamentos del Análisis Económico I.
    5. repec:red:issued:17-49 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Jeremy Greenwood & Nezih Guner & Guillaume Vandenbroucke, 2017. "Family Economics Writ Large," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 55(4), pages 1346-1434, December.
    7. Dürnecker, Georg & Herrendorf, Berthold, 2014. "On the Allocation of Time," Working Papers 14-09, University of Mannheim, Department of Economics.
    8. Lone Engbo Christiansen & Huidan Huidan Lin & Joana Pereira & Petia Topalova & Rima Turk, 2016. "Individual Choice or Policies? Drivers of Female Employment in Europe," IMF Working Papers 16/49, International Monetary Fund.
    9. Claudia Olivetti & Barbara Petrongolo, 2014. "Gender gaps across countries and skills: Demand, supply and the industry structure," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 17(4), pages 842-859, October.
    10. Stephan E. Maurer & Andrei V. Potlogea, 2017. "Male-biased Demand Shocks and Women’s Labor Force Participation: Evidence from Large Oil Field Discoveries," Working Paper Series of the Department of Economics, University of Konstanz 2017-08, Department of Economics, University of Konstanz.
    11. Corby Garner & Justin Harper & Tom Howells & Matt Russell & Jon Samuels, 2018. "Backcasting the BEA/BLS Integrated Industry-level Production Account and the Sources of U.S. Economic Growth between 1987 and 2016," BEA Working Papers 0151, Bureau of Economic Analysis.
    12. Hélène Couprie & Xavier Joutard, 2017. "Atypical Employment and Prospects of the Youth on the Labor Market in a Crisis Context," THEMA Working Papers 2017-08, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
    13. Herrendorf, Berthold & Rogerson, Richard & Valentinyi, Ákos, 2014. "Growth and Structural Transformation," Handbook of Economic Growth,in: Handbook of Economic Growth, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 6, pages 855-941 Elsevier.
    14. Merlino L.P. & Parrotta P. & Pozzoli D., 2014. "Gender differences in sorting," Research Memorandum 022, Maastricht University, Graduate School of Business and Economics (GSBE).
    15. Maurer, Stephan E. & Potlogea, Andrei, 2014. "Fueling the gender gap? Oil and women's labor and marriage market outcomes," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 60351, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    16. Karolina Goraus & Joanna Tyrowicz & Lucas van der Velde, 2017. "How (Not) to Make Women Work?," GRAPE Working Papers 1, GRAPE Group for Research in Applied Economics.
    17. repec:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:1:p:121-:d:125733 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. repec:eee:eecrev:v:102:y:2018:i:c:p:169-187 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Sevinç, Orhun, 2017. "Skill-biased technical change and Labor market polarization:the role of skill heterogeneity within occupations," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 86147, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    20. Christian vom Lehn & Eric Fisher & Aspen Gorry, 2018. "Male Labor Supply and Generational Fiscal Policy," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 28, pages 121-149, April.
    21. Duernecker, Georg & Herrendorf, Berthold, 2018. "On the allocation of time – A quantitative analysis of the roles of taxes and productivities," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 169-187.
    22. Orhun Sevinc, 2017. "Skill-Biased Technical Change and Labor Market Polarization: The Role of Skill Heterogeneity Within Occupations," Discussion Papers 1728, Centre for Macroeconomics (CFM).
    23. Fang Lei & McDaniel Cara, 2017. "Home hours in the United States and Europe," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 17(1), pages 1-27, January.
    24. Bridgman, Benjamin, 2016. "Home productivity," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 60-76.
    25. Jakub Growiec & Michał Gradzewicz & Jan Hagemejer & Zofia Jankiewicz & Piotr Popowski & Katarzyna Puchalska & Paweł Strzelecki & Joanna Tyrowicz, 2015. "Rola usług rynkowych w procesach rozwojowych gospodarki Polski," Gospodarka Narodowa, Warsaw School of Economics, issue 2, pages 163-193.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • L80 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - General

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