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Gender gaps and the structure of local labor markets

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  • Petrongolo, Barbara
  • Ronchi, Maddalena

Abstract

In this paper we discuss some strands of the recent literature on the evolution of gender gaps and their driving forces. We will revisit key stylized facts about gender gaps in employment and wages in a few high-income countries. We then discuss and build on one gender-neutral force behind the rise in female employment, namely the rise of the service economy, which is also closely related to the polarization of female employment and to the geographic distribution of jobs, which is expected to be especially relevant for female employment prospects. We finally turn to currently debated causes of remaining gender gaps and discuss existing evidence on labor market consequences of women's heavier caring responsibilities in the household. In particular, we highlight how women's stronger distaste for commuting time may feed into gender pay gaps by making women more willing to trade off steeper wage gains for shorter commutes.

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  • Petrongolo, Barbara & Ronchi, Maddalena, 2020. "Gender gaps and the structure of local labor markets," CEPR Discussion Papers 14622, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:14622
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    3. Aksoy, Cevat Giray & Özcan, Berkay & Philipp, Julia, 2021. "Robots and the gender pay gap in Europe," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 134(C).
    4. Hennecke, Juliane & Pape, Astrid, 2020. "Suddenly a Stay-at-Home Dad? Short- and Long-Term Consequences of Fathers' Job Loss on Time Investment in the Household," IZA Discussion Papers 13866, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    5. Bachmann, Ronald & Stepanyan, Gayane, 2020. "It's a woman's world? Occupational structure and the rise of female employment in Germany," Ruhr Economic Papers 889, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
    6. Adamus, Magdalena & Mikušková, Eva Ballová, 2020. "Gender-based wage discrimination and the backlash effect in recruitment and dismissal processes Experimental evidence from Slovakia," OSF Preprints 4y6uc, Center for Open Science.
    7. Gashi Ardiana & Adnett Nick, 2020. "Are Women Really Paid More than Men in Kosovo? Unpicking the Evidence," South East European Journal of Economics and Business, Sciendo, vol. 15(2), pages 83-95, December.
    8. Lídia Farré & Jordi Jofre-Monseny & Juan Torrecillas, 2020. "Commuting time and the gender gap in labor market participation," Working Papers 2020/03, Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB).
    9. Lídia Farré & Jordi Jofre-Monseny & Juan Torrecillas, 2020. "Commuting time and the gender gap in labor market participation," Working Papers 2020/03, Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB).
    10. Meekes, Jordy & Hassink, Wolter, 2020. "Fired and Pregnant: Gender Differences in Job Flexibility Outcomes after Job Loss," IZA Discussion Papers 13779, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    11. Anne Boring & Jennifer Brown, 2021. "Gender and Choices in Higher Education," Sciences Po publications 122, Sciences Po.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    gender gaps; Industry Structure; Local Labor Markets;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers

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